1. When did tool-making man appear in India?

Ans. Sixty thousand years ago.

2. In India, where have the skeletal fossils been found?

Ans. At Adamgarh in Madhya Pradesh.


3. Where is Mehrgarh located?

Ans. Baluchistan in Pakistan.

4. What is the time frame of the Mehrgarh culture?

Ans. Around 7000 or 6000 BC.


5. When was Mohenjodaro discovered?

Ans. In 1922.

6. Who discovered the Harappan civilization? Where is Harappa located?

Ans. Dayaram Sahni. In the Sahiwal district of West Punjab in Pakistan.


7. When was Harappa discovered?

Ans. In 1921.

8. Who discovered Mohenjodaro?

Ans. Sir Rakhaldas Banerjee.


9. Where is Mohenjodaro located?

Ans. In the Larkana district of Sind in Pakistan.

10. To which age belonge the Harappan civilization?

Ans. Chalcolithic Age.


11. What type of civilization was that of Harappan?

Ans. Urban.

12. Name the only shipyard found in the Harappan site.

Ans. Lothal in Gujarat.


13. Name the civilization that was contemporary to the Harappan civilization.

Ans. Mesopotamia abroad.

14. With which place ‘Melhua’ been identified?

Ans. Lower Indus.

15. With which civilizations outside India had Harappan people contacts?

Ans. Sumer and Mesopotemia.

16. Who was the most important God of the Rig-Vedic Aryans?

Ans. Indra.

17. Which was the first urbanization in India?

Ans. Harappan Civilization.

18. First urbanization centered which river?

Ans. Sindhu-Saraswati.

19. Second urbanization centered round what?

Ans. The Ganga Valley.

20. When did the second urbanization begin in India?

Ans. Around 500 BC.

21. What does the term ‘Aryan’ denote?

Ans. Language.

22. Wherefrom did the Aryans come to India?

Ans. Central Asia (Krygzstan).

23. Who initiated the Central Asian Theory regarding the original home of the Aryans?

Ans. Brandestine.

24. What does ‘Veda’ mean?

Ans. Knowledge.

25. Why are the Veda called Sruti?

Ans. As these were heard by the Arya Rishis.

26. Name one tribal assembly of the Rig-Vedic period.

Ans. Sabha.

27. What is the time span of the Rig-Vedic period or Early Vedic period?

Ans. Around 1500 BC to 1000 BC.

28. When did the Aryan come to India?

Ans. Around 1500 BC.

29. What is the time-span of the Later Vedic Period?

Ans. 1000 BC to 600 BC.

30. of the tribal assemblies or the Rig-Vedic period which was the most important?

Ans. Vidath.

31. With whom the Aryan came into conflict in India?

Ans. Dasas and Dasyns .

32. When did the institution of In the Early Vedic Period Gotra come into existence?

Ans. In the Early Vedic Period.

33. Which is the earliest specimen of the Indo-European (or Aryan) Language?

Ans. Rig-Veda.

34. Next to Rajan who was the most important official during the Rig-Vedic Period?

Ans. Purohita.

35. Who was the most important God of the Rig-Vedic period?

Ans. Indra.

36. Who was the most important God of the Later Vedic period?

Ans. Brahma or Prajapati.

37. What was the name of the tax collector of the Later Vedic period?

Ans. Sangrihiti.

38. What was meant by Samudra in the Rig-veda?

Ans. Collection of water.

39. Name the ritual performed by an ancient Indian king to impress upon the people about his power.

Ans. Asvamedha.

40. Name the Vedic texts composed in the Later Vedic period.

Ans. Sama, Yajur and Atharva.

41. What was the color of the pottery used by the Harappans?

Ans. Black and Red Ware (RBW).

42. What was the type of pottery used by the Vedic people?

Ans. Painted Grey Ware (PGW).

43. What gave rise to Jatis or Caste?

Ans. Varnasankaras.

44. Name a town that flourished around 600 BC (6th Century BC).

Ans. Varanasi.

45. Who was the 23rd Tirthankara of the Jainas?

Ans. Pareshanatha.

46. Who really was the ‘Rajan’ of the Rig-Vedic Period?

Ans. Tribal Chief.

47. Who was the real founder of Jaina movement?

Ans. Mahavira.

48. What are Aryasatvas?

Ans. Four Noble Truths.

49. Who recommended Madhyapantha?

Ans. Gautama Buddha.

50. Where was Mahavira born?

Ans. Kundagrama.

51. Where was Gautama Buddha born?

Ans. Lumbini.

52. Where did Gautama Buddha breathe his last?

Ans. Kushinagar.

53. When was iron first used in India?

Ans. About 1100 BC.

54. When iron came to be used in India on a large scale giving rise to agricultural economy?

Ans. Sixth century BC.

55. In which text there is reference to rashtra (state) for the first time?

Ans. Atharva Veda.

56. Who were the setthis (shresthis)?

Ans. Moneylenders.

57. By what name were the itinerant traders known?

Ans. Sarthavahas.

58. In the Later Vedic period who used to enjoy the surplus?

Ans. The ruling class (or the Kshatriya).

59. Who was the 24th or last of the Jaina Tirthankaras?

Ans. Mahavira.

60. Name an emperor who embraced Jainism.

Ans. Bimbisara.

61. Name an Indian ruler of foreign origin who propagated Buddhism outside India.

Ans. Kanishka.

62. Name the two sects into which the Jainas were divided.

Ans. Swetambaras and Digambaras.

63. Which language was adopted by the Jainas?

Ans. Prakrit.

64. Which South Indian language grew because of the Jainas?

Ans. Kannada.

65. What are the three elements in Buddhism?

Ans. Buddha, Sangha and Dhamma.

66. Which is the earliest Buddhist text?

Ans. Suttanipata.

67. Which language was enriched by the Buddhists?

Ans. Pali.

68. Name one famous Buddhist monastery.

Ans. Nalanda in Bihar.