7 Short Questions and Answers on Electoral Politics
1. What do you mean by Elections?
In democracy, administration is run by the representatives who are elected by the people. The process by which people elect their representatives is called election.
2. What do you mean by voters?
People who have the right to vote or participate in the election of representatives are known as ‘voters’.
3. Why are modern democracies representative?
It is due to the fact that modern states have very large population and areas and it is not possible for all the citizens to participate in the affairs of the state. Citizens elect their representatives for a fixed period who run the administration according to the wishes of the people.
4. What do you understand by ‘By-Election’?
By-election is an election which is held to fill up any vacancy in the legislature. If any seat in the Parliament or a State Legislature falls vacant due to the resignation, death or unseating (removal) of any member, the election held to fill in that vacancy is called by- election.
Such an election is held to fill up one or more vacancies and not for the whole house. The by-election is stipulated to be held before the expiry of six months from the date the seat falls vacant. The representatives elected in such an election are elected for the remaining period of the house.
5. What is mid-term election?
If the Lok Sabha or any State Legislative Assembly is dissolved before the expiry of its normal term, the election held to constitute a new house is known as mid-term election. Mid-term elections for the Lok Sabha were held in 1971, 1980, 1984, 1991, 1998 and 1999. Mid-term election is held for a full-term and not for the remaining period of the house.
6. What do you mean by Election Petition?
If any candidate or voter feels that election in his constituency has not been held properly or if he has any objection against the result he can file an election petition in the court. If the objections raised by him are found to be correct the court can set aside that election. In that constituency, the election is held again.
7. What do you mean by Adult Franchise?
In a democratic setup, citizens are given the right to vote after attaining a particular age. When every citizen, at the attainment of a particular age, irrespective of his caste, creed, religion, sex, property or education is given the right to vote, the system is known as Adult Franchise or Universal Adult Franchise.
In India, every citizen who has completed 18 years of age is given the right to vote and no discrimination is made on the basis of caste, creed, sex, religion, property or education of the person.