The Sultan of Turkey, ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was considered by many to be the Caliph or successor of the Prophet Muhammad. As such he was looked on as the head of the worldwide Muslim community. His dominion, the Caliphate (Khilafat), was greatly reduced by the terms of the treaty ending the War. India’s Muslims were outraged over this attack on the integrity of their religion. A Khilafat Movement was started and soon gathered momentum. Gandhiji embraced the cause of his Muslim fellow-countrymen, and in November, 1919 he was elected President of the All India Khilafat Conference. Shaukat Ali, Muhammad AH, and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad were the main – leaders of this movement.