The Gupta period is noted in the history of Indi for the flowering of art, architecture, literature and science. The Gupta monarchs, themselves highly cultured, patronised Sanskrit language and literature.
Kalidasa, the famous poet and dramatist of the contemporary India wrote Raghubamsam, Abhijncmasakimtalan etc. Other literary personalities of the period were Visakhdatta, the author of Mudrarakshasa; Sudraka, the author of Mrichchakatikcm Bharvi, the author of Kiratarjuniam, etc.
Contemporary philosopher Asanga and Basubandhu and the grammarians Panini and Patanja all received the patronage of the Gupta rulers.
In the field of scienc the pioneer work was done by Aryabhatta in his Aryabhattya. The great astrologer Varahamihir also belonged to this age.
Among other celebrities of the period mentioned may be made of Susruta, the author of the Susruta-Samhita and Kumaralata.
Incidentally, it is said that nine gems of personalities including Kalidasa adorned the Court of Chandragupta II. This assemblage of personalities was called the Nabaratna Sabha.
Thus considering the all-out cultural advancement of the Indians under the Guptas it may reasonably be compared ‘ at the per clean age of Greece or the Elizabethan age of England.
Ye the claim that it was the golden age of Indian history has been contested by some historians. Some modern historians are of the opinion that the economy and society of India did not attain that height in the Gupta Age as to regard it is a golden age.
For, status of women continued to decline under the Guptas. The economic condition of the country also started steadily declining from the middle of the Gupta rule.
The position of peasants also declined. Besides, evil practice of Child-marriage and Sati had begun in this age.
In view of all these retrogressive symptoms the epithet ‘golden age’ to the Gupta rule appears to some as myth.