What are the Factors which Control Climate of a Place ?


Factors which Control Climate of a Place are as follows:

The following are the six major factors control the climate of a place:

  1. Latitude
  2. Altitude
  3. Pressure and wind system
  4. Distance from the sea
  5. Influence of oceans and
  6. Physiography.

i. Due to the curvature of the earth, the amount of solar energy received on the earth varies from latitude to latitude.

  1. This results in the decrease of air temperature from equator to the poles.
  2. It determines the climate of a place.



(a) On equator, temperatures are always high.

(b) Temperature near the poles remains low the year around.

ii. With increase in altitudes, the atmosphere goes on becoming less dense and temperature goes on decreasing. It affects the climate. Examples


The rate of decrease in temperature with increase in height is 1°C per 165 metres of height.

  1. Air pressure and wind system of an area depend on the latitude and altitude of that area.
  2. The pressure and wind system exerts profound influence on the climate of any place because they control the temperature and rainfall pattern.

iii. Sea exerts a moderating effect on climate.

Hence distance from the sea or continentally is a major factor which determines the climate of a place. Examples

(a) Temperatures remain uniform in Mumbai, throughout the year.


(b) At Delhi, winter and summer temperatures varies from 0.2°C to 45°C.

iv. Ocean currents along with onshore winds affect the climate of a place.

A coastal area with warm or cold currents flowing past. It is warmed or cooled if the winds are on shore.

v. Physiography plays a major role in determining the climate of a place.

  • High mountains act as barriers for cold or hot winds.
  • They also cause precipitation if they are high enough and lie in the path of vapour laden winds.

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