Topographic factors include altitude, slope and direction of mountain chains

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The physical geographical factors are known as topographic factors. These factors include (l) altitude (2) slope and (3) direction of mountain chains and valleys. All these factors affect the climatic conditions of a place, and thereby influence the distribution of organisms.

With rise in altitude, there is progressive fall in temperature and as we go higher up with a decrease in temperature there is greater activity of the wind. A decrease in soil temperature reduces the absorption of water and nutrients by the plants.

The slope and direction of mountain chains have pronounced effect on the amount of solar radiation, rainfall, wind velocity, temperature and as a whole, the climate of the area. Because of this, there arc a variety of vegetations each in interesting adaptation to the local conditions.

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