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It is also called Per­tussis. It is an infectious disease. It starts with cold and cough. Afterwards the coughing becomes very harsh and continuous. The patient finds difficulty in breathing. Sweating and vomiting also occur with it. It can lead to Brancho Phemonia. Whooping

Cause

The cause of cough this disease is Becillus Pertussis or Hemophilus Pertussis. It badly affects respiratory pipe and lungs.

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Incubation period

It takes seven days to appear its symptoms. Maximum limit is 21 days.

Spread:

(i) It is a very dangerous infectious disease.

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(ii) It spreads through breath, spit and cough of the patient.

(iii) Sometimes personal belongings of the patient like handkerchief, bedding etc. also spread this disease.

Symptoms:

(i) Cold and cough.

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(ii) Pain in throat.

(iii)Mild fever.

(iv) Watery eyes and nose.

(v) Continuous and harsh coughing.

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(vi) ‘Whoops’ sound while coughing.

(vii) Face gets red while coughing. (viii) Tongue protrudes while coughing.

(ix) Patient sweats and faces difficulty in breathing.

(x) There are blood clots in spit.

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It is a very painful disease. The children do coughing vigorously for many minutes. While coughing, children lose control over passing of their bowels and urine.

Cure:

(i) Patient should be prevented from cold and dampness.

(ii) Patient should be kept separate from other children.

(iii) Patient should be given light, diges­tible food in small quantity.

(iv) Pertussis Vaccine (DPT) should be given to the patient.

(v) Juice of Aloe Vera (Gwar Patha) with sugar should be boiled and cooled. One teaspoon of this should be given in morning and evening.

(vi) Sour foodstuffs should be avoided.

(vii) Fruit juices should be given to the pa­tient.

Prevention:

(i) Keep the patient away from other chil­dren.

(ii) Other children should be vaccinated.

(iii) Leftover food of the patient should not be used.

(iv) Personal belongings of the patient should not be used by other people.

(v) Cough and spit of the patient should be burnt.

Polio (Poliomyelitis Infantile Paralysis)

It is an infectious disease. It is caused by virus. They attack the nervous system, brain and spinal cord of the victim. The affected part of the body becomes useless.

Cause

It is spread by virus called polio virus. They spread through patient’s cough, sneeze and spit in the air. It also spreads through the excreta of the patient. They affect the spinal cord and medulla oblongata. If this is treated in time the child can be saved to an extent. If the virus succeeds in affecting the organ, the child gets paralysed. These viruses sometimes spread through water and milk.

Incubation period

It takes 7 to 12 days. Sometimes it can affect in 3 days also.

Symptoms:

1st stage

The patient suffers from high fever. He also suffers from headache, cold, pain in the body, stiffness in the neck.

2nd stage

After 1st stage the child ap­pears normal for 2 or 3 days then the 2nd stage starts. The child experiences pain in vertical column during bending. Feet become weak, limbs become listless. Sometimes mus­cles of eyes and face are also affected. If throat, chest, lungs are attacked by these viruses, the person may die.

Prevention:

(i) Call the health officer as soon as the disease is detected.

(ii) Excreta of the person should be burnt.

(iii) Water should be saved from contami­nation.

(iv) Chlorine should be used to clean water.

(v) Milk should be pasteurised.

(vi) Raw fruits and vegetables should be cleaned in water which contains potassium permanganate.

(vii) Food should be saved from flies.

(viii) Hygienic conditions should be maint­ained.

(ix) Polio vaccine should be administered to the baby after one month of their birth. This vaccine should be given three times within the gap of one month between each dose.

Care:

(i) It is necessary to control fever and vomiting.

(ii) More liquids should be given.

(iii) Consult a doctor.

Cure:

(i) Olive oil massage should be given to the child especially on legs.

(ii) Iron lung machine can be used for breathing by the patient.

(iii) The doctor should be consulted immediately.

Tuberculosis

It is a chronic disease caused by bacteria. People who live in congested places where they don’t get enough sunlight suffer from this disease. It sometimes occurs due to drink­ing raw milk from infected cattle.

This disease is spread through air. Previ­ously people used to think that there was no cure for this disease. But now this disease is curable but one has to continue the treatment. It can affect any part of the body. When it affects lungs it is called pulmonary TB. It can affect bones, intestine and brain also.

Cause

It is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. This germ is destroyed by sun rays. It is also destroyed in milk if it is boiled for ten minutes. These microbes can remain alive in any climate for 6 months.

Type of Tuberculosis:

(i) Pulmonary TB

(ii) Non-pulmonary TB

Pulmonary TB

Patient suffers from the pain in the chest. The patient feels fatigue, starts loosing weight, often discharges blood with cough.

Non-pulmonary TB

It affects the lymph glands, joints and bones of forehead. The patient suffers from fever.

Spread:

Germs of this disease are found in the cough of the patient. They are spread by coughing of the patient, excreta and spit. Flies and infected animals also spread this disease. Infected milk can also cause it.

Children may get TB from parents also. Polluted environment and weak health can also cause TB.

Incubation period

It is a chronic disease and may remain for years.

Symptoms

There are three stages of this disease:

Normal (First stage)

Severe (Second stage)

(Hi) Very severe (Third stage)

Symptoms:

(i) Weakness and fatigue.

(ii) Unwillingness for work.

(iii) Weight loss.

(iv) Loss of appetite.

(v) Mild fever.

(vi) Less menstrual flow in ladies. (vii) Blood clots in cough.

(viii) Sweating during night. (ix) Slow heartbeat. (x) Pain in throat and chest. (xi) Breathlessness.

(xii) Weakness causes bones to be visible. Precautions:

(i) The patient should be kept separately

from other children. (ii) Information should be given to the health officer.

(iii) Houses should be well ventilated.

(iv) People should be made aware about this disease through media.

(v) BCG vaccine should be given to chil­dren within one month of their birth.

(vi) Excreta of the patient should be burnt.

Care:

(i) Give complete rest to the patient. (ii) Patient should be kept in a well ventilated room having sunlight.

(iii) Balanced and nutritious food should be given to the patient.

(iv) Doctor should be consulted.

(v) Streptomycin injections should be ad­ministered with the consultation of the doctor.

(vi) Extra doses of Vitamin ‘A’ and ‘D’ should be given to the patient.

Tetanus

This disease is caused by the germ called Tetanus Bacillus. These germs produce toxins in the deep wounds and cuts. They are found in the intestines of horses and animals. They are found in dust also.

Incubation period. Incubation period of this disease is from 14-15 days. Sometimes it causes difficulty in breathing and heart failure.

Symptoms:

(i) The patient feels pain in the muscles of the back.

(ii) These symptoms appear from 3 to 21 days. Patient feels restlessness and irritation.

(iii) Body becomes stiff and patient suffers from headache.

(iv) Neck and jaws become stiff. Patient cannot chew and swallow food.

(v) Patient suffers from fever.

(vi) Patient suffers from severe pain and often dies.

Prevention:

(i) All the wounds should be treated care­fully.

(ii) Wounds should be washed with anti­septic lotion.

(iii) Tetanus injection should be adminis­tered immediately.

(iv) Doctor who treats the patient should be careful about himself.

Measles

This disease is caused by virus. It is an infectious disease. Children are usually affected by this disease. But it can attack elders also. It is caused by the contact with diseased person. Its virus spreads in the air and causes infection.

Incubation period. 6 to 14 days is its incubation period. The symptoms of the disease may appear after 12 to 13 days.

Symptoms:

(i) Child suffers from cough, headache and cold.

(ii) Small red eruptions are seen on the face and behind the ears.

(iii) Slowly the whole body is covered with these eruptions and the child suffers from fever.

(iv) Child suffers from running nose.

(v) Swelling in nose and throat.

(vi) Difficulty in swallowing.

(vii) After four or five days, eruption starts drying.

(viii) Temperature of the body recedes.

(ix) The child becomes normal after 8 to 10 days.

(i) The child should be kept in well venti­lated room. (ii) The child should be kept separate from other children. (iii) The personal belongings like towels, handkerchief, toys of the child should be sterilised.

Care:

(i) Child should be given full rest. (ii) Food should be light, with few spices and can be easily digested.

(iii) The child should not touch the erup­tions, sprinkle powder on them.

(iv) Doctor should be consulted.

Special needs of disadvantaged children

Generally as the child grows, he adjusts himself in the environment automatically. Sometimes due to certain reasons some children are not able to achieve their developmental milestones and they lag behind. These children are different in their physical, mental or social attributes from the other children. Such chil­dren are called disadvantaged children.

Definition of normal children

Children who achieve their developmental milestones in time and adjust with their environment naturally are called normal children.

Children who are not able to achieve their developmental milestones and are not able to adjust with their environment are called disadvantaged children. They lag behind in physical, mental and social development in comparison to the other children of their age.

According to Mr Baker, “Children who have lesser physical, mental, emotional or social capabilities than the normal chil­dren and need special education and training to develop their potentials are called disadvantaged children”.

Observing the development of children

Parents should observe and understand the development of their children from the very beginning. After birth the child achieves many developmental tasks step by step. All the chil­dren achieve these tasks sooner or later. In the first year following developmental tasks are achieved by a child:

· One month-old stares towards light.

· 2 to 3 months-old gives response to his mother by smiling.

· 3 months-old turns his neck towards the sound of snapping fingers.

· 5 to 6 months-old tries to hold things and sits with support.

· 6 to 7 months-old can hold the bottle with both hands and can sit without support.

· 9 to 10 months-old first walks with sup­port and then without support.

· 10 to 12 months-old is able to compre­hend and follow simple instructions. He starts giving response to the stimulus that he receives from the environment.

· Parents should also keep a watch on how the child responds to the environment. Is he conscious about his environment or not? Does he accomplish his developmental tasks on time or not? When the parents feel some abnormality in the child the doctor should be immediately consulted so that if any disability is detected, corrective measures can be taken in time and the child can be taken care prop­erly. In many cases early detection and treat­ment can help in improving or overcoming deficiency.

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