It is an infectious disease caused by Hordetella pertussis. It occurs in young children. It is characterized by mild fever and irritating cough. Cough occurs in series of paroxysms without breathing and a final inspiratory whoop.
Stages of whooping cough:
It occurs in three stages:
1. Catarrhal stage lasting for 10 days.
2. Paroxysmal stage lasting for 2 to 4 weeks.
3. Convalescent stage lasting for 1 to 2 weeks. The illness generally lasts for 6 to 8 weeks.
Complications of pertussis:
Bronchitis, bronchi pneumonia and bronchiectasis. The violence of cough may cause subconjunctival hemorrhage.
The source of infection is the infected patient. The disease spreads by droplet infection and through fomites.
Prevention and Control
1. Early diagnosis by bacteria logical examination of nose and throat secretions.
2. Isolation of contacts and cases.
3. Treatment with erythromycin.
4. Active immunization with pertussis vaccine or DPT vaccine.
Passive immunization with hyper immune gamma globulin
An attack of polio begins with fever, sore throat, headache and stiffness of neck. In a few cases it leads to foot drop and flaccid paralysis of limbs.
The source of infection is an infected person. Transmission occurs by fecal-oral route. Direct infection occurs through contaminated fingers. Indirect infection occurs through contaminated water, food and flies.
Prevention and control:
1. Notification and isolation of the patient.
2. Proper disposal of urine and feces.
3. Protection of water sources and supply of safe drinking water.
4. Avoidance of overcrowding in schools and in public gatherings.
5. Fly control measures.
6. Immunization with Salk vaccine and Sabine vaccine. Salk vaccine is a killed vaccine. It is administered by injection. Sabine vaccine is a live oral polio vaccine.