A manager for directing the people working under him, has to be a leader. When a manager is a leader, he is in a position to lead subordinates and also inspire them to accomplish the objectives of the enterprise. A good manager motivates his subordinates, achieves maximum co-operation and also co-ordinates the activities of the employees. A leader may or may not be a manager but a manager must be a leader.


1. Louis Allen: “A leader is one who guides and directs other people. A leader gives the efforts of his followers a direction and purpose by influencing their behaviour.”

2. Koontz and O’Donnell: “leadership is the ability of a manager to induce subordinate to work with zeal and confidence”


3. Alford and Beatty: “Leadership is the ability to secure desirable actions from a group of followers voluntarily without the use of coercion or force”.

Characteristics of Leadership

1. Leadership is the process of influence exercised by the leader on members of a group.

2. Leadership presupposes the existence of a group of followers.


3. Leadership is a personal quality of an executive who imaginatively directs, guides and influences the work of others in attracting specified goals.

4. Leadership style may differ form situation to situation.

5. A good leader acts as a representative of his group.

6. Leadership is the ability to persuade others and motivate them to work for achieving certain goals.


Function of leadership

1. Leading the group.

2. Guiding and motivating subordinates.

3. Understanding subordinates and securing their co-operation.


4. Establishing community interests.

5. Developing team spirit.

6. Representing the undertaking.

7. Justifying actions.


8. Building confidence.