Minerals are found in varied forms, ranging from the hardest diamond to the softest talc and are found in three forms: (i) Igneous and metamorphic rocks (ii) In beds or layers in sedimentary rocks (iii) Trough decomposition of sedimentary or surface rocks. Some minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills.

The ocean waters contain vast quantities of minerals. Ocean beds are a treasure house of minerals.

Minerals mixed with iron are termed as ferrous minerals. They account for about three-fourths of the total value of the production of metallic minerals.

Non-metallic minerals are made up of a series of plates or leaves. Energy fuels are obtained from minerals like coal, petroleum and natural gas found in rocks.


The non-conventional energy is obtained from sunshine, wind, etc. Conservation of minerals is very essential.