The extent to which art and architecture develop in a society will be the extent to which the society as a whole will be considered talented. Even such ancient societies like the Egyptian, Mespotamian.

Chinese, Indian and Greek are famous in History for their attainments in the field of art. Art includes the fine arts and architecture is also an art but it is generally distinguished because of its special nature.

Sculpture, painting, music, even poetry are usually treated as fine arts but architecture has its own dimensions which give it a spacious personality. Every art is associated with science. Music with the physics of sound, painting with perspective vision, literature with linguistics; similarly architecture is controlled as well as assisted by engineering.

So a society which is advanced in the arts can be seen to be proficient in the sciences also. It has been therefore truly stated that architecture is the matrix of civilization.


The architectural remains are the main visible records of men through the different ages of his historical evolution. When historical records fail us either on account of thier scarcity or their doubtful nature we may find architecture a useful auxiliary in elucidating many obscure matters of history.

We notice different styles of architecture in the world and they differ from one another in fundamental principles and details. To the Greeks, architecture was refined perfection. Human buildings are characterised by scientific construction. Indian architecture is marked by certain features which are sui generis.

First, one is struck by its spiritual content. The main purpose of the building art in India is to represent in concrete form the prevailing religious consciousness of the people. It is the objectification of mind in terms of rock, brick, iyiortar or timber.

Secondly, the development of Hindu architecture has been mainly regional and therefore the building style was moulded by varying local conditions which were themselves the product of the availability of building material.


Thirdly, Indian architecture has grown depending heavily upon the evolution of religious ideas. The extent to which the various religions in India have depended on one another for their doctines and practices has also been the extent to which the different types of architecture like the Buddhist, the Hindu, and the Jaina have influenced one another. Broadly speaking it was right for Fergussion to speak of Buddhist, Hindu etc., and styles of architecture.

The differences come because of the special needs of each religion. The medieval Hindu temple depends for its architectural style on the agamas, which are the quintessence of the religious formalities. Hindu architecture, not only religious, but even secular is conditioned by the principles of life accepted as basic by that society. Above all even as material decides construction, climate also decides it.

Though normally secular structures are characterised by considerations of utility and religious structures by religious symbolism the latter cannot be free from utilitarian considerations and the former from artistic feelings. Even secular structures, it was believed must have aesthetic qualities.