Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987. Its objective was to control and ultimately ban the production of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS).

The overproduction and overuse of CFCs and other ODS such as Halons, used in fire- extinguishers, aircrafts, computers etc. Carbon Tetrachloride used in pesticides, paints etc. and Methyl Chloroform have led to depletion of ozone layer and further creating and enlarging the ozone hole.

This has made earth’s environment vulnerable to dangerous ultra-violet radiation. The effect of such expose is destruction of phytoplankton in ocean which interferes with protectivity of marine plants and it is responsible for depletion of marine oxygen concentration.

The UV-radiation further interferes with life cycle of shrimp which is single largest source of natural protein. This UV-radiation has many such hazardous effect. To check this, Montreal protocol was adopted in 1987 and strengthened in 1990 by London Protocol.


It provided for developed countries completely phasing out the CFC & other ODS by the year 2000. The developing countries have been provided a 10 year grace period i.e. upto 2010. It provided for establishment of multi-lateral fund contributed by industrialized nations to assist the developing countries those are parties to this protocol, financially and technologically to achieve its objective. India and China is largest beneficiary to this.