Every State has its specific educational set-up based on its condition and ideology. Education is the key of all development and every State gives top priority to its educational field life an investment on human resource for future.
“State is an organized political community with government recognized by the people.” A very well organized society develops into a state. A State exists for the sake of good life.
In a democratic State, the people are the real master. The State is directly influenced by the educational level of its people. Prok. Laski says, “Education of the citizens is the heart of the modern States.” India must adopt a positive attitude towards the education of all. Article 44 of Indian Constitution provides free and compulsory education to the children between the ages 6-14.
Educational Functions of the State:
(1) Providing aims and objectives of education:
Different States may have different aims and objectives. Education aims at producing democratic citizens to protect democracy of a democratic State.
(2) Arranging for education at different levels:
The state opens schools and colleges where it is necessary. The state makes provision for higher education of all types-Liberal, Scientific, Commercial, Technical and Vocational.
(3) Making education compulsory up to certain age level:
The State tries its best to provide free and compulsory education up to the age of 14 years.
(4) Framing of curriculum and syllabus:
The State prepares the curriculum and syllabus for different classes taking the help of experts.
(5) Providing textbooks and teaching materials:
The State provides textbooks to the students of all classes. If it is not possible on his part to print, it may allow private enterprises to supply good books.
(6) Directing and controlling educational activities:
The State makes provisions and arrangements to control the educational institutions through different rules, regulations and administrative machineries.
(7) Financing educational institution:
The educational institutions are managed by both the government and private bodies. The State provides financial assistance to private institutions. The State has taken responsibility to make primary education free and compulsory providing necessary financial assistance.
(8) Supervising educational institutions:
The State has control over all the educational institutions of the State. There is the educational department through different levels to supervise the educational institutions.
(9) Providing in-service training:
The State arranges in-service training programmes in the form of seminars, meetings, conferences, workshops, refresher courses, summer orientation programmes. These programmes can be organized by NCERT, SCERT, DIET, etc.
(10) Appointing committees and commissions:
The State appoints from time to time, different committees and commissions headed by educational experts to survey and discuss various problems of education and to recommend measures for further improvement of education.
(11) Arranging educational research:
Research and experimentation are very much essential for qualitative improvement in education. The State provides assistance to those centers and persons who carry out research to improve various aspects of education. It is most essential because success or failure of educational schemes can be assessed. The NCERT, the UGC, the SCERT, etc. are making headway in this regard.
(12) Establishing State Institute of Education:
The Commission of 1964-66 also recommended the establishment of State institutes of education in all the States of India. The main functions of these institutes will be in-service education of department officers, improvement of teachers in education, preparation of curriculum and textbooks, development of guidance, research and evaluation programmes and publication of periodicals on educational problems in modern Indian languages for the use of teachers.
It is found that ideology and philosophy of the State are reflected in the educational theory and practice.