a. Poverty and Frustration:

The Indian national movement entered into a new phase during the early part of the present century. The leadership of the national movement passed to the extremists or the militant nationalists.

This leaning towards a more radical method was not a sudden incident. The background of this had long been created by the thoughts and teachings of a few intellectuals of India.

Poverty and frustration among the Indians also made them lean towards extremism. It was being increasingly realized by Indians that their economic distress could not be ended without an end of the British imperial rule. This made a group of Indians attract to the radical nationalist politics.


b. Failure of the Moderates:

It may be said that the failure of the Moderates policy of ‘prayer and petition’ also helped the growth of militancy among many of the Indian people.

Particularly the political events and the repressive measures taken by the British between the years 1892 and 1905 disappointed a section of the nationalist leaders and turned them towards militancy.

These leaders, called the ‘Extremists’, believed that boldness and self-sacrifice alone could fulfill the aspirations of the Indians.


Out of their hatred to the alien rulers the Extremists declared independence to be the goal of their national struggle.

Thus it was the advanced political programme and objectives of the Extremists that separated them from the conservative Moderates.