Developing Formative Evaluation Instruments as Aids to Learning

Depending on the timing and the purpose of evaluation it can be classified into following three types:

1. Formative:

It is concerned with making decisions relating to forming or development of students as well as of the courses. It provides feed-back at appropriate stages of the teaching-learning process which helps in making changes in the curriculum, teaching strategies and the learning environment. It is done during the process of teaching-learning with the following main objectives-


a. To evaluate the learning environment with a view to improving it

b. To evaluate curriculum materials.

c. To evaluate courses and curricula with the purpose of modification, updating or replacement, if necessary.

d. To monitor student leaning for the purpose of providing individualized.


2. Summative:

It is concerned with making judgements about a finished product of process. Terminal examinations whether internal or external are good example of summative evaluation. Cumulative assessments, where they are undertaken solely for the purposes of selection, promotion, prediction, recording and such other administrative purposes, should be considered as a series summative evaluation.

Remedial Programme :

1. Role of the Teacher:


The teacher has to be patient as these type of learner need care and love. They develop hatred if they are not properly cared as they are emotionally weak.

2. Remedial Programmes:

Programme instruction works very well because of self-pacing. Spacing curricula developed include simple programmed materials. In most of Indian schools there is provision for a remedial period in the beginning or at the end of the school hours.

Very few teachers are using this period for actual remedial work. Many a times teachers use this period to cover the course or to revise the course in a full class. This period should be utilised only for actual remedial work for the few students who actually need teacher’s help.


3. Special Grouping Special curricula:

Special grouping has been identified as an effective way. If special programmes are not available, the teacher can develop a teaching style which will be more effective. Many special curricula in science have been developed in USA and United Kingdom. Here stress is on experimentation and the materials are tailored to their unique characteristics and needs. The content covered is comparatively less and more real experiences are given.