Urbanization is a global phenomenon in the developed countries of the world. It is now taking a steady stride in developing countries. The degree of urbanization has increased tremendously. It means that (A) the proportion has increased (B) the population density of towns has increased and (C) the percentage of growth of population has increased in countries like India.

These three parameters which are related with volume, spatial spread and growth from the three indices of degree of urbanization is largely due to a steady migration of rural population from rural to urban areas.

The main reason for heavy concentration of urban population in large metropolitan cities is that they are the centers of major industrial and commercial activities. They offer much attraction for migration of people and these accounts for rapid increase in their population.

Factors contributing to urbanization are (A) Industrialization (B) Transportation (C) Socio­economic changes all of which have impact on environment and health. The management of urbanization involves an extremely range of problems and thus effecting all aspects of social life.


The urbanization and proliferation of urban slums presents a challenge to public health. This situation has become a global concern and future of entire mankind is at stake due to phenomenal rise in population, rapid urbanization, degradation, of environment, ever increasing pollution and over exploitation of natural and non-renewable resources.

Urbanization has brought into associated problems related with the energy. Energy is an essential impact for urban development. Energy is produced from commercial sources like cow dung, fuel wood and agricultural wastes. Per capita consumption of commercial energy is sometimes used as an index of the consumption of economic advancement. India’s per capita commercial energy however is very low. It is one eighth of the world average commercial energy accounts for a little over of the total energy used in the country, the rest coming from non-commercial sources.