Babur’s eldest son Humayun, who succeeded him, inherited “a monarchy which could be held together only by the continuance of war condi­tions, which in times of peace was weak, structure less, and invertebrate.” Babur’s conquests had not been consolidated, the army lacked cohesiveness and the administration an effective machinery.

The imperial treasury was almost bankrupt and beyond the frontiers powerful political forces, such as Malwa, Gujarat and Bengal, were arrayed against the Mughals. On top if it Humayun divided the empire inherited from his father among his three brothers, Kamran, Hindal and Askari.

The Afghans, who had not yet been crushed, also raised their heads. Of them, Sher Khan, known as Sher Shah Suri, proved to be the most formidable enemy of Humayun, and after defeating the latter at Chausa and Kanauj in 1540, completely shat-tered his prospects.

After his final defeat at the hands of Sher Shah Suri, the Mughal empire in India was temporarily eclipsed and Humayun had to pass nearly fifteen years (1540-55) in exile. But shortly after regaining the empire Humayun die in an accident.