Development theories contributed to the development of life ‘skills in an individual as follows:

(i) Moral development

Moral development can be defined as “the development of values and rules a person uses for balancing the conflicting interests of the self and others”. Kohlberg has divided moral development into three stages: Pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional.

The child moves from his occupation with the consequence of behaviour on oneself to moral judgments that incorporates the right of others and finally, incorporates universal ethics. It is important to remember how a child develops morals. Behaviourists like Watson believe that child learns through observation and modeling.


(ii) Social learning theory

This theory is based on the work of Albert Bandura. His theory emphasises that:

(a) The behaviour is modified by the consequences of their own actions as well as by the response of others significant in the life of an individual.

(b) Bandhura also stressed that children learn to behave through your observation and social interaction.


Bandura also concluded that development is not just an outward behaviour but also internal behaviour (such as self-efficacy, self- concept).

(iii) Cognitive development theory

Piaget and Vygotsky in their theories of cognitive development stressed that learning is a result of disequilibrium, which is created due to conflict between the new knowledge learnt and old concepts.

An individual tries to attain equilibrium particularly through interactions with the peers or with more knowledgeable people like teachers.


Vygotsky argued that “learning awakens a variety of internal processes that are able to operate when child starts interacting with peer”. Therefore, we can say that learning is a social phenomenon.