Learning takes places in different ways. It covers a wide range, starting from the simple forms of animal learning to the complex forms of adult human learning. The difference between the simple and the complex is not one of kind, but of degree. A learning theory is a bunch of principles which explains how an organism learns. There are several learning theories developed by eminent psychologists of the world. The theory of learning can be broadly divided into two categories.

1. Associative or S-R theories

The following theories come under this category.

(a) Thorndike’s connectionism


(b) Pavlov’s Classical conditioning

(c) Skinner’s Operant conditioning

2. Central / Cognitive / Field theories

The following theories come under this category


(a) Gestalt Theory or Insight theory

(b) Tolman’s Sign Theory

(c) Lewin’s Field Theory.