Here is your free essay on crime in India
The figures pertaining to seven types of crimes against women in India in the three years, between 1996 and 1998, indicate that these crimes have been constantly increasing every year. Broadly speaking, every year about 15,000 rapes, 30,000 cases of molestation, 15,500 cases of kidnapping, 4,000 cases of torture, 6,500 cases of sexual harassment and 6,000 cases of dowry-deaths take place.
Of the total crimes against women under the Indian Penal Code (IPC) in three years between 1996 and 1998 (1,22,760), 30.7 per cent are torture cases, 24.7 per cent are molestation cases, 5.3 per cent are eve-teasing cases, 12.7 per cent are kidnapping and abduction cases, 12.3 per cent are rape cases, and 5 per cent are dowry deaths, 6.7 per cent are immoral traffic cases, 0.1 per cent are importation of girls cases, 0.1 per cent are indecent representation cases and 2.4 per cent are cases under Dowry Prohibition Act (Crime in India, 1998: 156).
The proportion of IPC crimes committed against women towards total IPC crimes remained around 6 per cent during 1996 to 1998. The number of crimes against women per one lakh population worked out to be 13.5 during 1998. With reference to female population, this comes to 28.1 per cent per one lakh female population.
Uttar Pradesh reported highest incidence of these crimes (13.3%), followed by Madhya Pradesh (12.1%) and Maharashtra (10.9), Rajasthan (12.1%) and Maharashtra (10.9%), Rajasthan (9.3%), Andhra Pradesh (8%) and Tamil Nadu (6.5%).
State wise it is seen that the high level of incidence of rape is found in Madhya Pradesh (22.3%), Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Maharashtra. The level of kidnapping is high in Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Jammu & Kashmir. Dowry-deaths are high in Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Maharashtra, Orissa and Rajasthan.
Torture (cruelty by husband and other relatives) is recorded high in Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan.
The crime level of molestation is high in Andaman’s and Nicobar Islands, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Mizoram. Lastly, eve-teasing cases are found high in the union territory of Pondicherry, Delhi, Chandigarh, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra (Crime in India, 1998: 159-160).
There are 10 molestation cases every three hours and five rapes every three hours in our country. Though in comparison to the West, the annual rate of rapes per one lakh of population may not be very high (it being 0.5 per one lakh of population in India in comparison to 26 in the United States, 8 in Canada, 5.4 in England).
In view of the fact that a very large percentage of rape cases goes unreported either because the victim does not have the courage to face shame and humiliation poured on her by society, or because of the disgrace reporting will bring to her family, or because of police harassment, or threats of retaliation b/ therapists, and considering the fact that molestations and rapes constitute the highest percentage (37) among crimes against women, rape should be viewed as a serious problem that causes personality disorders in victims, attracts social stigmatisation of their children, and social disgrace to their families.
Like molestation and rape, the incidence of kidnapping and abduction has also been increasing in our society. The incidence in 1973 increased by 8.7 per cent over 1972; in 1978, the incidence increased by 11.1 per cent over 1977; in 1982 the incidence increased by 14.1 per cent over 1981, and in 1998 the incidence increased by 4.9 per cent over 1997.
It could be said that 5 girls/women are kidnapped/abducted every three hours. The rate per one lakh of population is 2 in our country.
Dowry-deaths too have been increasing every year. At a rough estimate, the figure for deaths in India that occurs owing to non-payment or partial payment of dowry could be placed around 17 in one day. Delhi police recorded 421 cases of bride-burning in 1980,568 in 1981, 619 in 1982, 423 in 1987, and 647 in 1994. In Andhra Pradesh, against 14 cases registered in 1983, there were 27 cases in 1984, 160 cases in 1985, and 172 cases in 1994.
The Andhra Pradesh Mahila Federation, however, claims that there are more than 300 cases of dowry-oriented suicides and murders every year. Of the total dowry deaths every year in the country, the highest percentage (32.2) is reported in Uttar Pradesh, followed by Bihar (15.0), Madhya Pradesh (8.6), Andhra Pradesh (7.2), and Rajasthan (6.2)
As regards female murders, though the figures pertaining to victims of murder on the basis of sex are not available in India, it is well known that the number of female victims of homicide in comparison to male victims is low.
Whereas in the United States, female victims constitute between 20 and 25 per cent of the total victims of homicide (about 25 to 30 thousand every year), in India, of about 38,700 murders committed every year, women constitute about 10 to 15 per cent of the total victims, i.e., about 4,000 to 6,000 per year.
Lastly, though cases of torture (wife battering and cruelty by relatives) are seldom reported to the police in our society, yet it may not be unreasonable to believe that the numbers involved are high as more than one woman in every 500 to 1,000 women is battered.
Adding cases of sexual harassment and molestation, we get a rough idea of the incidence of cases of crimes against women and various forms of subjugation of women by men in our country.