There are various kinds of physical tests to identify specific strengths and weaknesses, usually focusing on low-and of spectrum. Sub scores often have low reliability. (Diagnostic Math Inventory), content validity most important. We shall discuss these tests later.
Measurement and Evaluation
Measurement is a descriptive process, is used to collect information about the performance of a student or a class. It is not an end in itself. It does not imply judgments concerning the worth or value of the behaviour being measured. Measurement, often includes the assignments of a number to express in quantitative terms the degree to which a pupil possesses a given characteristic, e.g., Ram can clear a 100 m race in 15 sec.
Such quantification trends to increase objectivity of the description so that it will have the same meaning from time to time and from person to person. One of the most common tools of measurement used by teachers is the paper and pencil test. It measures many kinds of performance well. It is obviously not the only tool; however, Scales, cameras, tally sheets, anecdotal records and many more tools are used to collect information about (measure) student performance.
Evaluation is a process of comparing student’s performance or characteristics against a standard. A teacher uses measurements data to evaluate his student’s performance. All teachers evaluate pupils. Evaluation occurs when teachers and parents compare a child’s potential with his or her performance; it takes place when teachers praise and encourage students.
In our schools, evaluation is inescapable. Generally evaluation is of two kind-normative and criterion. In normative evaluation a student’s performance may be compared with the performance of other student’s, while in criterion evaluation a student’s performance may be compared with predetermined standard.
Principles of Measurements and Evaluation
For measurement and its correct evaluation instruction is needed, because both are an integral part of the instructional process. Instruction, well done, is more complex than standing before learners and lecturing on the topic at hand. It beings with careful planning of what is to be learned and how students can best be helped to learned and how students can best be helped to learn the material.
From the first, teachers may think of ways that students will show what they have learned. As students study and learn teachers observe and test and in several other ways collect information (evaluate students) on trouble spots and misunderstandings and skills finally mastered. After instruction, evaluation becomes more formal. Whenever evaluation happens along the way it becomes the basis for revision of materials and activities and lectures. We call this “curriculum embedded” evaluation. Eventually the instructional cycle begins again; plan, teach, evaluate, revise.
Making Correct Decisions
Decisions should be clear and in right direction, because measurement and Evaluation is a means to an end and not an end in itself. The use of evaluation implies that some useful purpose will be served and that you, the teacher are aware of that purpose. There is no justification for collecting data on pupil performance unless a use for the data is clearly in mind. If evaluation is seen as a process of collecting information so as to make correct educational decisions then it will become an integral part of instruction enhancing student learning.
Various Tools are required
A variety of techniques and process are required in comprehensive measurement and evaluate’ Assuming that many kinds of objectives are being accomplished in every science class in why students enroll; recall, problem solving, performance, etc, then no single kind of measure is added- A wide variety of techniques, instruments and procedures is required to measure the variety learning to be measured. To get a complete picture of a student’s achievement then teacher mus combine the results from many varied techniques.
Planning and Purpose should be clear
Planning and purpose of the measurement must be clear so that the measure could be clear and distinct. Both evaluation and measurement decision should be made in terms of the purpose for which you will use them. This principle helps a teacher focus on the purpose and use for this evaluation being planned. No evaluation or measure should be planned until the teacher has identified the question she is trying to answer and how the data from the measure are going to be s used.
The decision making sequence should be as follows. The teacher has an instructional problem to solve. He selects the appropriate from of evaluation. Then he develops a measurement instrument or procedure. Using the measure, the teacher collects the desired information. Using the information the teacher solves the instructional problem.
Specify the Objectives
If pupil learning is to be measured then specifying instructional objectives and material to be learned is the first order of business. When intended learning outcomes have been identified, then the kind of evaluation which is most appropriate can be planned and used. In evaluating student ability to perform in the laboratory or in front of the class, for instance, one would select a checklist or a rating scale rather than an objective paper and pencil test.
The question, “is the measure of kind of evaluation the best method for determining what I need to know about my student, or my class to serve my specific purpose?” must be asked and answered. The debate over which is the best kind of test item or the best kind of test can only be resolved as you the teacher carefully consider the purpose which the test will serve.
Limitations and Strength should be clear
These techniques require an awareness of their limitations as well as their strengths. Evaluation instruments vary from fairly well-developed standardized tests to hurriedly made teacher constructed tests and procedures. Even the best have serious limitations. For example, all standardized tests and teacher-made final examinations are constructed so as to sample from the many ideas and skills taught to students. It is almost impossible to use these kinds of tests to diagnose student learning] difficulties.