Some important Computer Terms of Terminology


Analog Computer: A computer that represents its data in the form of a measurement (volts, feet, degrees, etc.) of an actual property.

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): The component of a CPU responsible for the performance of arithmetic and logical operations.

Bug: A bug is an error in a programme that makes the computer commit a mistake or do something not desired.


Byte: A byte is a group of (usually) eight bits treated as a unit and often used to represent one character.

CD-ROM (Compact Disk-Read Only Memory): Large volume of detail data can be stored on a single disk. This is why it is called compact. Once the data is stored in it, it can be retrieved any number of times. Since the data can only be read but can’t be re-recorded on it, it is called Read Only Memory.

Chip: Chip is a tiny slice of pure silicon and used to hold many circuits that make up a memory device.

COBOL: A high-level commercial programming language, which stands for Common Business-Oriented Language.


Command: It is the portion of a computer instruction that specifies the operation to be performed, for example, add, multiply.

Computers: Computers are electronics devices capable of performing mathematical calculations.

CPU one: The full form is Central Processing Unit. It is the part of computer that does the calculating.

Data: Data is the information which is put through and stored in a computer. It is the information that the computer needs in order to carry out the instruction it has been given.


Database: An organized collection of information stored on a magnetic disk or other direct-access storage device.

Data Flow: A computer assisted method for the recording and analyzing of existing or hypothetical systems.

Data Processing: Execution of a systematic sequence of operations upon data e.g., merging, sorting, computing.

DBMS: The full form is Database Management System. It is a class of programmes used for managing large collections of information.


Disk: Disks are of two types-hard disk and floppy disk. They are used for storing the digital information that computer uses to record both programmes and data.

E-Mail: Electronically transmitted messages.

Hardware: The physical components of a computer system (excluding the software and firmware) are known as hardware.

Hybrid Computer: A type of computer that combines the best features of analog and digital computers.


I/O: Full form is Input/Output. It refers to getting data and Programmes into the computers, and results out.

Input: The data or information fed into a computer is called input.

Key: A sequence of letters used to encode and decode data.

Language: Language is the special words or figures used when writing ‘instructions to a computer.

Matrix: A display of information laid out in columns and rows.

Memory: The space inside a computer for temporary storage of data 311(1 information in binary form.

Modem: The device that allows a computer to transmit information a phone line.

I Network: A system consisting of two or more computers connected by high-speed communication lines.

Node: Any device that is connected to a computer network.

Operating System: A type of software that controls the operation of a computer system.

Output: The information or result that the computer sends or gives is its output.

Personal Computer: A desktop or handheld computer designed for general purpose use.

Programme: It is a set of instructions given to the computer to perform specific tasks. These instructions are written in a language that the computer can understand or interpret. Programmes are referred to as software.

RAM: It stands for Random Access Memory. The memory banks of computers are composed of RAM. Therefore RAM is the place where the computer keeps instructions and data it needs currently for the task assigned.

ROM: It stands for Read Only Memory. Main memory of the computer that is fabricated as the random access memory but the contents of the main memory are fixed during manufacturing and cannot be modified i.e. only the contents can be accessed.

Go to Statement: The unconditional branching statement in FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, PASCAL, etc. languages.

Silicon: Integrated circuits are fabricated on silicon wafers. After fabrication the wafer is cut into chips which are used as integrated circuit components.

Simulation: The representation or imitation of a situation or system on a computer, usually with a mathematical model.

Software: The programmes through which computers are told as to what kind of operation they are required to perform.

Store: It means to place data or programmes in a computer for future use.

VDU: It stands for Video Display Unit. It refers to the screen or monitor which displays computer output.

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