There is a growing awareness all over the world to protect the Earth’s environment. The United Nations Conference on Human Environment in Stockholm (1972) put the environmental issues on the International agenda. It was estimated that about 70 per cent of world’s income was going to top 25 per cent of the population.
In other words, the sustainable life styles are associated with the wealthy that enjoy and consume over 80 per cent of World’s energy resources while the poorest one billion people have to depend for life and security on common property resources.
The Montreal protocol (1987) was amended under pressure from India and other developing countries in London in 1990. The biggest Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) consumers were reluctant to sign the amended protocol to phase out CFC voluntarily. In United States, the average consumption of energy is highest in the world.
In this country about 5 tonnes per capita of carbon is emitted annually into the atmosphere. On the contrary, India emits 0.4 tonnes of carbon per capita annually. Thus the average American pollutes the atmosphere 12 times more than average Indian. Twenty-five per cent of the world’s population contributes 75 per cent of global environmental problem.
The first global gathering of heads of 165 countries participated in Rio’s Conference. The United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development which organized Earth’s Summit has estimated that about $625 billion will be needed a year over the next 5-10 years to help world-wide switchover to environment friendly technologies and address the immediate environmental problems.