Term Paper on Cardiovascular System | Human Anatomy | Biology

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Term Paper on Cardiovascular System


Term Paper Contents:

  1. Term Paper on the Introduction to Cardiovascular System
  2. Term Paper on the Components of Cardiovascular System
  3. Term Paper on the Applied Importance and Applied Anatomy of Cardio Vascular System
  4. Term Paper on the Types of Circulation of Blood in Cardiovascular System 
  5. Term Paper on the Structure of Blood Vessels in Cardiovascular System 
  6. Term Paper on the Nerve Supply of Blood Vessels in Cardiovascular System


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Term Paper # 1. Introduction to Cardiovascular System:

It is the transport system of the body, through which nutrients are conveyed to the tissues for utilization and metabolites (waste products) are conveyed to appropriate places for excretion. The conveying medium of cardiovascular system is liquid – blood flows in blood vessels.

Central pumping organ, i.e., heart maintains circulation of blood into tissues.


Term Paper # 2. Components of Cardiovascular System:

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Cardiovascular system components are:

1. Heart:

Is a four chambered muscular organ which pumps blood into tissues of body.

i. Receiving chamber is atrium.

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ii. Pumping chamber is ventricle.

2. Arteries:

i. Arteries are distributing channels.

ii. Carry blood away from heart.

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iii. Branch-like trees in the course.

iv. Large arteries rich in elastic tissue.

v. Medium arteries rich in muscular tissue.

vi. Arterioles are minute branches visible to naked eyes.

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3. Veins:

i. These are draining channels.

ii. These bring back blood to heart from tissues.

iii. Like rivers – veins are formed by tributaries.

iv. Venules – are small veins – join and form larger veins.

4. Capillaries:

i. They are network of microscopic vessels.

ii. Connects arterioles with venules.

iii. Causes free exchange of nutrients and metabo­lites across their walls between blood and tis­sue fluid.

iv. Capillaries are replaced by sinusoids in certain organ e.g., liver, spleen, uterus etc.


Term Paper # 3. Applied Importance and Applied Anatomy of Cardiovascular System:

Applied Importance Cardio Vascular System:

Normal BP – 120/80 mm Hg ± 10.

1. Pulse Pressure:

Difference between systolic and diastolic pressure is pulse pressure.

2. Haemorrhage:

Bleeding – from rupture of blood vessels.

Venous – or arterial haemorrhage.

3. Vascular Catastrophies:

Thrombosis, Embolism, Haemorrhage.

4. Arteriosclerosis:

In old age – arteries become stiff.

5. Arteritis and Phlebitis:

Due to inflammation.

Applied Anatomy of Cardio Vascular System:

Blood Pressure:

i. It is the arterial pressure exerted by blood on the arterial walls.

ii. Maximum pressure during ventricular systole is systolic pressure.

iii. Minimum pressure during ventricular diastole is diastolic pressure.

iv. Systolic pressure generated by force of contraction of heart.

v. Diastolic pressure is due to peripheral resistance.


Term Paper # 4. Types of Circulation of Blood in Cardiovascular System:

A. Systemic Circulation (Greater):

Blood flows from left ventricle, through various parts of the body – to the right atrium, i.e., from left to right side of heart.

B. Pulmonary Circulation:

Blood flows from right ventricle, through the lungs, to the left atrium, i.e., from right to the left side of heart.

C. Portal Circulation:

It is a part of systemic circulation.

The characteristics of it are:

(i) Blood passes through two sets of capillaries before draining into a systemic vein.

(ii) Vein draining first set of capillary network is known as portal vein – it branches like an artery to form second set of capillaries or sinusoids.


Term Paper # 5. Structure of Blood Vessels in Cardiovascular System:

Three coats are present in all blood vessels except capillaries and sinusoids:

1. Tunica Intima:

This is inner most layer made- up of endothelium supported by fibrous connective tissue.

2. Tunica Media:

It consists of smooth muscle – fibres and extends from internal elastic lamina to external elastic lamina. Thickness – depends on type and function of vessel.

3. Tunica Adventitia:

Outer most layer made-up of fibrous connective tissue contains nerve and blood supply for blood vessel.

Example- Muscles of limbs and body wall.

Capillary Structure (Capillus = Hair):

i. Microscopic endothelial tubes without smooth muscle cell – single layer of endothelial cells.

ii.Basal lamina of glycoprotein which surrounds endothelial cells and splits at places and encloses pericytes.

iii. Pericapillary layer of connective tissue cells and fibres.

iv. Average diameter is 6 to 8 microns – just sufficient to permit R.B.C. to pass through it in ‘single file’.

v. Size varies from organ to organ, largest – 20 microns in skin and bone marrow.

Blood Supply of Blood Vessels:

i. Vasa vasorum which forms dense capillary network in tunica adventitia and supply outer part of tunica media and adventitia.

ii. Intima and inner part of media is nourished directly by diffusion from luminal blood.

iii. Minute veins accompany arteries and drain the blood from outer part of vessel.

iv. Lymphatics are also present in adventitia.

Functional Classifications of Blood Vessels are:

(a) Distributing vessels- are large arteries, e.g., aorta and its branches.

(b) Resistance vessels- are arterioles with muscular wall and pre-capillary sphincter. These controls flow of blood into tissues.

(c) Exchange vessels- are capillaries, sinusoids and post capillary venules.

(d) Capacitance vessels or (reservoir) – large venules and veins – convey blood back to heart.

(e) Shunts- including various types of anastomoses.


Term Paper # 6. Nerve Supply of Blood Vessels in Cardiovascular System:

i. Nerve accompany arteries and are called nervivascularis.

ii. Sympathetic fibres are vasoconstrictor in function.

iii. Few sensory fibres are present in outer and inner coats of vessels.

Sinusoids:

Replace capillaries in certain organs like liver, spleen, bone marrow etc.

Characteristics of Sinusoids:

Sinusoids are large, irregular, vascular spaces, closely surrounded by parenchyma of the organ.

i. Walls are thinner and may be incomplete, lined by endothelium in which phagocytic cells (R.E.C.) are often distributed.

ii. Adventitia is absent.

iii. Basal lamina is replaced by thin layer of reticular fibres.

iv. May connect arteries with venules in spleen, bone marrow or venule with venule (liver).

Anastomoses:

A pre-capillary or post-capillary communication between the neighbouring vessels is called anastomosis. Circulation through anastomosis is called collateral circulation.

Types of Anastomoses:

(a) Arterial anastomosis – communication between branches of arteries.

(b) Venous anastomosis – communication between veins.

(c) Arterio venous anastomosis (shunt) communi­cation between artery and vein.

End Arteries:

Arteries which do not anastomose with other arteries are called end arteries, e.g., central artery of retina, central branches of cerebral arteries.

Applied Importance:

Occlusion of an end artery causes sudden serious nutritional disturbances resulting in death of tissue supplied by it, e.g., occlusion of central artery of retina – results in permanent blindness.


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