Radiation is a phenomenon which involves movement of energy through space. A number or atoms possess the ability to emit radiations and, thereby, cause radio-active pollution.

Radiations originate from instability of the nuclei of an atom which loses sub-nuclear particles and energy to acquire a stable state. The phenomenon is termed as radio-activity. No physical, chemical or biological process can influence, reduce or terminate these emissions from a radio-active element as it is the state of atomic nuclei which is responsible for the phenomenon.

Atom of an Element and its Isotopes

The core of an atom of any element is constituted by a super dense object, the nucleus which is composed of neutrons and protons. The number of protons equals the number of electrons which revolve round the nucleus.


The chemical properties of an element depend upon the number of electrons which revolve round the nucleus particularly in its outer orbits. As far as the chemical properties are concerned an element shall remain the same as long as the number of electrons (or protons) is the same. An element will change or transmutation into another if the number of protons is altered.

However, a change in number of neutrons in the nucleus shall not affect the chemical properties of the element, instead it will cause the formation of different isotope of the same element. Most of the elements occur in nature as a mixture of two or more than two atomic forms or isotopes.