1. What type of goods was produced in the karkhanas of the Mughal period? What was the principal manufactures of the country during the Mughal period?
In the karkhanas of the Mughal period luxury items were manufactured for the consumption of the members of the royal family and the nobles.
Fine cloths of gold, silk, pearl, essences, etc. were the principal items manufactured during the Mughal period. The products were manufactured for both the internal and external markets.
2. What was declared illegal by the Mughal government for the benefit of trade and commerce? What particular facility helped trade under the Mughals?
For the benefit of trade and commerce the Mughal government declared road-cess to be illegal.
The Mughal emperor issued prohibitive orders against the imposition of cess on articles of trade anywhere and everywhere.
3. Give an example to show how, during the early Mughal period, India had overseas trade. Name a port through which the external trade under the Mughals flowed.
The Indian merchants actively participated in the overseas trade under the Mughals. It has been stated by Manucci, the Italian traveller, that Surat was the largest port of India to which came articles from Europe, China and West Asia.
Surat was a port through which external trade of India flowed.
4. Where did Vasco da Gama land in India? Where did the Dutch establish their factory in India?
Vasco da Gama landed at Calicut in the west coast of India.
The Dutch established their factory in India at Masulipattam.
5. Who permitted the English to open factory in India? Why did the English could not open their factory before 1612?
It was the Mughal Emperor Jahangir who permitted the English to open factory in India.
It was because of the opposition and resistance of the Portuguese traders that the English could not open factory in India before 1612.
6. Where was the earliest factory of the English established in the Bengal suhali? Where the English factory was first constructed in Bengal Proper?
The earliest factory of the English was established at Hariharpur in present Orissa, which was a part of the Bengal snbah.
In Bengal proper Hooghly was the place where the English established their factory.
7. When did the French first establish their factory? With the ‘ coming of which Governor that the French became an important trading power to reckon with?
The first French factory was established in India at Surat in 1668.
With the coming of Dupleix as the Governor of the French factories in India that the French power increased considerably.
8. When did Aurangzeb die? From the time of which Mughal Badsah decline of the empire may be said to have set in?
Aurangzeb died in 1707.
It was from 1712, the year of the death of Bahadur Shah I that the decline of the Mughal Empire had set in.
9. Name two of the states that emerged by way of rebellion against the Mughals.
The Marathas and the Sikhs established their kingdoms by way of rebellion against the Mughals.
The Marathas established the Swarajya and the Jats their kingdom of Bharatpur.
10. Who founded the regional kingdom of Hyderabad and when?
The regional kingdom of “Hyderabad was founded by Chinkilich Khan in 1724. Chinkilich Khan was the first Nizam of Hyderabad.
Nizam became the title .of the head of the kingdom of Hyderabad from that time onwards.
11. Who was Farrukhsiyar? When he issued his Farman?
Farrukhsiyar was the Mughal Emperor who issued a Farman that came to be known as the Farrukhsiyar Farman.
Through the Farman issued in 1717 he granted some major concessions to the English in their trade in Bengal subah.
12. Name the mineral that was greatly used during the Mughal period. Which industry constituted the heavy industry in the Mughal period?
Under the Mughals iron, a mineral, was used in plenty particularly for the manufacture of military equipments.
The manufacture of cannon was the single example of heavy industry under the Mughals.
13. Why were the years 1707 and 1765 important in the history of India?
In 1707 died Aurangzeb, the last of the great Mughals. Within fifty years after his death the Mughal Empire ceased to be a mighty empire.
In the year 1765 the English East India Company received the grant of Diwani from the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam the II. With the grant of Diwani the English Company came to control the treasury of Bengal.
14. What was dastak? Who used to issue the dastak?
Dastak was a special permit that allowed movement of the goods belonging to the English Company duty-free.
Dastak was issued by the head of the English factory at Calcutta.