There the various means of motivation necessary for effective learning have been described in brief. Knowledge of these incentives is useful for teachers, whose main responsibility is to motivate learners properly.
(1) Will to Learn
There is a saying in English, “We can take the horse to water, but we cannot make it drink.” That is unless the pupil wants to learn, nobody can force him to learn. The simplest motivation that a teacher can give to a pupil is to ask him to learn. When the pupil knows that he is expected to learn, he tries to learn. Sometimes the pupil learns unconsciously, but it is not so much effective. Purposive learning is permanent and as such more effective.
The individual has his ego or self. It makes him feel that he is a separate entity. He has his own ideas, feelings, values and dignity. It is natural on his part to get pleasure in the work, where his ego is involved and satisfied. There are three characteristics of self; (i) it can be observed and known by the individual, (ii) it can be clearly separated from other individuals and (iii) it can involve the individual.
Since satisfaction of ego motivates an individual very much, in the learning process the activities where ego is involved are to be organized in the schools. We usually perform two kinds of activities. When we put on shoes, brush our teeth or read newspaper, self is not involved. But when we talk in a conference or particularly dress ourselves for any special function, our ego is involved. In the first type of activities, self remains all of, whereas in the second type of activities self is involved deeply.
Ego is involved in all those actions, in which our ability is challenged and our prestige is at stake. The teacher should try to involve ego of the pupil in suitable activities for effective Earning.
(3) Praise and Blame
To praise and to blame are found to be effective incentives for learning. Particularly when it comes from persons who held in high esteem by the learners. Psychological studies have revealed that irrespective of age, sex or ability, praise is the most effective of all incentives. Reproof does not seem to have equal effectiveness for all pupils. Burlock has found that praise is more effective stimulus in motivating both immediate and long-continuing tasks. It depends on the teacher where to use blame and where to use praise. A good teacher is he, who can use these incentives at a proper time and in a proper manner.
(4) Rivalry and Competition
Rivalries as well as competition have proved to be effective for promoting learning. Competitive spirit is a great motivational factor for learning. It is healthful, invigorating and desirable. But at times it degenerates into rivalry, which leads to Jealousy, resentment and ill feeling. Hence in education, rivalry is to be discouraged and replaced by competition.
Although research studies have indicated that rivalries are powerful motivating influence, it is harmful due to its emotional and social effects on students. But friendly and healthy competitions are desirable both from psychological as well as from sociological points of view.” It promotes learning and academic achievements. It also encourages good social relationships sand fellow-feeling.
(5) Punishment and Rewards
To penalize for any undesirable activity and award for any desirable action or achievement are proved to be effective for learning. But these are more concrete expressions of praise and blame and have their own limitations and difficulties. Punishment is based on physical and mental pain and displeasure; it may create resentment, hostility and aversion.
Rewards also create unhealthy rivalry, mutual animosity, jealously and ill- will. For getting the praises, students engaged themselves in undesirable practices and resort to unfair means. The teacher should use both punishment and rewards as sparingly and judiciously as possible, considering the psychological and social reaction and effects.
(6) Knowledge of Success and Achievement
The student when informed about his performance-success or failure, gets motivates for making further efforts. Therefore, knowledge of progress made from time to time, enables the pupil to make better progress. Necessary records should be properly maintained and students should be informed about their performance in a scientific and objective manner.
Judd through his experiment has shown that practice without awareness of results had no effect on certain types of learning. Thorndike has also reported on the basis of his experiment that knowledge of results or progress tends to improve mental and motor behavior.
(7) Use of Audio-visual Aids
The proper use of audio-visual materials and media helps in making the teaching-learning process effective, as well as interesting. It makes many difficult concepts and ideas clear and stimulates pupils to learn more profitably. The learners are found more attentive and motivated when they view T.V. Programmes, films, slides or film-strips or when they listen to radio programmes, tape recordings or gramphones. Especially dull students are more motivated and consequently more benefited by these aids. Teachers are, therefore, suggested to use these audio-visual aids in the teaching programmes in proper time and in proper manner.