India is a vast country. Hence, it has a diverse and complex environment. Its physical environment ranges from arid to humid, continental to Marine Mountain to plateau and plains and from sub-Arctic to tropical. Similarly due to long cultural traditions and much acculturation its social environment is more complex and varied. Hence, the state of India’s environment should be examined under these per­spectives, which may include physical versus so­cial, rural versus urban, agricultural versus indus­trial, nomadic versus sedentary and so on.