Prof Bryan Livy suggests the following steps for job analysis.
1. Identification and isolation of the component tasks in a job. (Some jobs may consist of large number of tasks and sub-tasks and it, may be convenient to group some of these into task “Taxonomies” where there is sufficient common between them, to reduce the complexity of the analysis to manageable proportions).
2. Examine how tasks are performed (e.g. the skills required, order in which they have to be exercised, whether tasks are done in isolation or as paid of a team effort etc.)
3. Examine why tasks are performed as they are (why the production or administrative processes concerned require various inputs, the relationship of tasks to each other within a job and to other jobs in the organisation).
4. Examine when and why tasks are performed.
5. Identify the main duties involved, both regular and occasional, and scale the main duties according to their difficulty, frequency and importance to the ‘job as a whole. 6. Identify the main areas of responsibility (e.g. responsibility for various assignments of work, responsibility of the work of other people, responsibilities for money, plant and equipment, materials turnover etc).
7. Note the prevailing working conditions in respect of physical, social and financial aspects of the job.
a. Physical environment (temperature, noise, dirt, danger or comfortable office facilities etc.)
b. Social environment (whether in teams, shifts, insolated work etc.)
c. Financial conditions (If a payment system is already in existence, note the basic wage rate or salary currently obtaining, and any bonus, incentive schemes, fringe benefits etc. which may apply)
8. Identify the personal demands which a job makes on an individual incumbent. These may be categorized according to the following criteria:
a. Physical demands (e.g. muscular energy, travel, hours of work etc.)
b. Intellectual demands (e.g. university degree or professional and technical qualification required, degree of intelligence, problem-solving required etc.)
c. Skills (e.g. any particular psycho-matter, social or diplomatic skills called for)
d. Experience (e.g. some jobs call for considerable occupational experience, know- how or previously held levels of responsibility, control or decision making)
e. Personality factors (e.g. ability to work through other people to provide leadership, to initiate, to work without close supervision etc.)