Maldeo, the Ruler of Jodhpur, invited Humayun in June 1541 to recover the throne of Delhi. Sher Shah wrote to Maldeo asking him not to give shelter to Humayun and arrest him and hand over to him. Under the circumstances, Maldeo remained neutral for fear of offending Sher Shah or Humayun. In spite of all this, Sher Shah was not satisfied with the behaviour of Maldeo and wanted to teach him a lesson.
Moreover, Sher Shah could not tolerate the existence of a powerful state like that of Maldeo. Preparations were made for an attack on Maldeo. Towards the end of 1543, Sher Shah marched against Mewar. He did not get an easy victory. He had to resort to a clever device to defeat Maldeo. Dissensions were created between Maldeo and his followers and it was then that Maldeo was defeated.
The forged letters were to the following effect : “Let not the king permit any anxiety or doubt to find its way to his heart. During the battle, we will seize Maldeo and bring him to you.” So bitter was the fighting and so difficult was the victory that Sher Shah declared thus : “1 had nearly lost the Empire of Hindustan for a handful of Bajra (Millet).”
Marwar was got in 1544 but soon after the death of Sher Shah Maldeo reocci Med the lost territory in July 1555.
As regards the policy of the Sher Shah towards the Rajput princes, Dr. Qanungo observes thus : “in Rajasthan, Sher Shah made no attempt to uproot the local chiefs or to reduce them to thorough subjection as he had done in other parts of Hindustan. He found the task dangerous as well as fruitless. He did not aim at the complete subversion of their independence, but their political and geographical isolation for one another so as to make any general upheaval against the Empire impossible.
In short, it was something like a British occupation in the North-Western Frontier tribal territories which is meant less for gain than for the safety of the Indian Empire.” Sher Shah established garrisons of his troops at important places and maintained strict control over the means of communication. Ajmer, Chittor, Jodhpur and Mount Abu were fortified and held by the Afghan troops.
Sher Shah led his last expedition against the Raja of Kalinjar in Bundelkhand. It was felt that it was difficult to capture the fort even after a siege lasting for a year. Ultimately, Sher Shah decided to blow up the walls of the fort. Mines were dug. Sher Shah was injured by the explosion of gunpowder. The Fort was taken but Sher Shah himself died in May 1545.