63 Short Questions and Answers on Climate in India
1. What is the highest temperature that reaches in Thar Desert in summer?
Nearly 50 c.
2. To what extent do the temperatures come down in winter at Drass?
3. What is the maximum difference between day night temperature found in Kerala and the Andaman and Nicober Island groups?
Hardly any difference between day and night temperatures.
4. State the six climate controls.
Latitude, altitude, pressure 55d Wind systems, distance from the sea, ocean currents and relief.
5. Which jet streams are most constant?
(i) Mid latitude jet stream and
(ii) Subtropical jet stream.
6. State the total annual rainfall received in Meghalaya.
More than 400 cm.
7. Mention major factors affecting the climate of our country.
(i) Location and Relief
(iv) Pressure and Winds.
8. Which Physiographic Division acts as an influential climate divide between India and Central Sea?
9. Why is tropical climate found in Northern India?
Due to the location of the Himalayas in the north of India, cold winds of Central Asia do not enter in this region.
10. Give two characteristics of the tropical climate.
(i) High temperatures and
(ii) Heavy precipitation throughout the year.
11. Which planetary winds blow from the Subtropical high pressure zone to the Equatorial low pressure zone?
Trade (Easterlies) Winds.
12. Write the main cause of the formation of Monsoon winds in India.
Reversal of wind direction due to higher pressure generating over the Indian Ocean than over the mainland.
13. What is literal meaning of Monsoon?
Mausim (Season) (Arabic Origin).
14. Which is the influence area of the Monsoon?
Regions between 20° N and S latitudes.
15. Name the four months of rainy season in almost all over the country.
June, July, August and September.
16. Name the four seasons of India with their months.
(i) Winter season (December to February)
(ii) Summer season (March to May)
(iii) Season of Advancing Monsoon (June to mid-Sept.)
(iv) Season of Retreating Monsoon (mid-September to November).
17. Give the names of the winter months in India.
18. Where is high pressure found during winter?
In the North Plains.
19. Which winds blow in India during winter?
North-east trade winds.
20. What is the main characteristic of the trade winds?
(ii) Cold as they blow from land to seas in winter.
21. Where do the Western disturbances get originated?
Over the Mediterranean Sea.
22. Name and give the direction of winds that cause snow and rainfall in the northern parts of India during winter season.
Western Disturbances from west to east.
23. Which Monsoon winds cause rains generally on the Tamil Nadu Coast?
Retreating Monsoon winds and North-east Monsoon winds.
24. Where is the maximum temperature in March?
In the Deccan Plateau.
25. Which is the low pressure area in summer?
The region extending from the Thar Desert to the Chota Nagpur Plateau.
26. What is the duration of rainy season in the North-western parts of India?
Only two months (July and August).
27. How much rainfall in percentage occurs during rainy season?
75% and 90%.
28. Into which branches does the Peninsular India divide the Monsoon winds?
(i) The Arabian Sea Branch
(ii) The Bay of Bengal Branch.
29. Which mountain or hill range acts as a barrier in the path of the Arabian Sea Branch?
The Western Ghats.
30. Which region receives the maximum amount of rainfall by the Arabian Sea Branch of the South-west Monsoon?
The windward slopes of the Western Ghats-Sahyadri.
31. What is the direction of South-west Monsoon in West Bengal?
From South-east to North-west.
32. Which two branches in the Bay of Bengal Branch split into?
(i) The Western Branch.
(ii) The North-east Branch.
33. What is the nature of rainfall received from the Western Branch?
The amount of rainfall decreases from east to west.
34. What type of rainfall does the North-east Branch cause?
35. Where does the heaviest rainfall of the World occur?
At Mawsynram, 1080 cm.
36. What are the basic features of the Monsoon?
Irregularity, uncertainty, unevenness and unreliability.
37. In which months does the Monsoon retreat?
From mid-September to November.
38. When does the Monsoon leave the Northern Plains?
39. Where does the low pressure area develop during November?
On the Bay of Bengal.
40. Where do the cyclones cause rainfall in November?
On the Eastern coasts of the Peninsular India.
41. Mention the two heaviest rainfall areas of the country.
(i) The windward slopes of the Western Ghats.
(ii) The Meghalayas Plateau.
42. Which three regions receive less amounts of rainfall in India?
(i) Western Rajasthan.
(ii) Interior parts of the Peninsular Plateau.
(iii) Ladakh Region.
43. Which regions of India experience snowfall regularly?
The Himalayan lofty mountain ranges.
44. What is relief rainfall?
When the moisture-laden winds ascend the slopes of mountains, they get condensed and shed their moisture on the slopes. This type of rainfall is termed as relief rainfall.
45. Why the Himalayas are called a climatic divide?
The Himalayas act as a great natural wall between two climatic regions, India and Central Asia, separating them from each other. Thus they are called the climate divide.
46. Why is Kashmir Valley often called the Paradise on Earth?
The Kashmir Valley is often called the Paradise on Earth. The following reasons make it so:
(i) healthy and most suitable climate.
(ii) its scenic beauty and
(iii) pollution free environment.
47. Enumerate the factors that influence the climate of the Subcontinent of India.
(iv) Pressure and wind systems –
a. Trade winds.
b. Western disturbances.
c. Jet stream.
(v) Distance from the sea
(vi) Ocean currents.
48. When is the Monsoon expected to break in Kerala and reach the plains of Punjab?
(i) Breaking of the Monsoon in Kerala: Beginning of June.
(ii) Reaching Punjab: First week of July.
49. What is meant by ‘October Heat”! Where is it experienced?
With the retreat of the South-west Monsoon oppressive heat occurs due to the combination of high temperatures as the sky is clear and excessive humidity as the land is still moist with water. This is commonly known as ‘October Heat’. It is experienced mainly in the Northern Plains of India.
50. What is the Period of Transition?
During October-November, the period changes from hot rainy season to dry winter season. Hence, this period is called the period of transition.
51. Write short note on the conditions of Retreating Monsoon.
The season of Retreating Monsoon is the period of Transition. During the period of transition low pressure of the north-west shifts to the Bay of Bengal. It results in the formation of cyclones over the Bay of Bengal. These cyclones cause havoc on the coasts of Orissa and Andhra Pradesh. t
52. “In spite of abundant rainfall, India is a water thirsty land”. Why is it so?
India is a water thirsty land in spite of abundant rainfall. This is because of the following factors:
(i) Occurrence of rainfall in a few months (from June to September).
(ii) Rapid run off and the quick evaporation of rainwater.
(iii) Long breaks and delays in the Monsoons.
53. Why does rainfall on the Western Ghats decrease from south to north?
Rainfall on the Western Ghats decreases from south to north because the height of the Western Ghats in the south is maximum and it goes on decreasing northwards allowing progressively less condensation. It results in the decrease of rainfall from south to north. Moreover the period of onset and withdrawal of monsoon in south is more than that in the north. It results in more rainfall in southern parts than in the northern parts of the Western Ghats.
54. Why does Jodhpur enjoy desert climate? Give two reasons.
Jodhpur is situated on the outskirts of Thar Desert or in the Western parts of Rajasthan. (i) When the monsoon winds pass over western parts of Rajasthan, Thar Desert, they become warmer and increase their capacity to hold moisture instead of shedding moisture, (ii) Besides this, Aravalli Hills fall parallel to the Arabian Sea branch of the South- West Monsoon and they do not act as barriers. Hence they do not cause any rainfall here. (iii) Jodhpur being situated near the Thar Desert, enjoys desert type of climate.
55. Enumerate regions of heavy rainfall.
(i) The western slopes of the Western Ghats.
(ii) The Brahmaputra and Surma Valleys of the North-east.
(iii) The neighbourhood of Cherrapunji in Meghalaya.
(iv) Northern West Bengal, Sikkim and northern Bihar.
56. How is South-west Monsoon formed?
South-east trade winds, blowing from the Tropic of Capricorn towards Equator advance towards the low pressure of the north-western plains. These winds extend over the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. Suddenly the upper air circulations catch them up over India. It deflects them towards the Indian Peninsula and Myanmar as South-westerly winds. Thus, the South-west Monsoons are formed.
57. Why the eastern side of the Western Ghats is called a typical rain shadow area?
The Arabian Sea branch sheds maximum moisture on the western side of the Western Ghats. Then it begins to climb down and sheds whatever moisture it has. Now the winds increase their capacity to hold moisture. Hence they do not cause rainfall on the eastern side of the Ghats, making it a typical rain shadow area.
58. Why does Chennai receive more rainfall during winter?
The coasts of Tamil Nadu or Chennai coasts have more than 5 cm of rainfall in winter. It is because the North-east Monsoon winds passing over the Bay of Bengal get moisture and when they reach the Tamil Nadu coasts they cause rainfall here.
59. Which areas have more than 50 cm and less than 5 cm of rainfall in July? Why is it so?
Most areas of the country have more than 50 cm of rainfall in July. The western Rajasthan (Thar Desert) and the North-eastern Ladakh experience less than 5 cm. of rainfall in July. Due to parallel situated of Aravallis, lack of vegetation, high temperatures and non-condensation of moisture in western Rajasthan rainfall is very scanty. The Zaskar range does not allow the monsoon winds to reach North-eastern Ladakh. Hence it also receives very scanty rainfall during July.
60. How have the easterlies assumed the name Trade’?
The word ‘Trade’ has been derived from the German world ‘Track’. Track means the path on which winds blow in the same direction throughout the year and on the same course. The easterlies characterise these qualities. Hence, they have assumed the name ‘trade’.
61. Why does Shillong receive more rainfall than Calcutta (Kolkata)! Give two reasons.
Shillong is situated on the Meghalaya Plateau which receives the highest rainfall in the country.
(i) Shillong is situated on lofty mountains, funnel shaped. Here condensation is intense causing heavy rainfall.
(ii) Kolkata is located on the Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta. There is no mountain range obstructing the South west Monsoon. Hence, it receives less rainfall.
62. What is annual range of temperature? Explain it by giving one example.
The difference between the maximum average temperature and minimum average temperature of a place over twelve months is known as annual range of temperature.
The max average temperature at Jodhpur is 33.9°C and min. average temperature is 14.9°C. Hence the annual range of temperature at Jodhpur is 19°C (33.9°C – 14.9°C).
63. What is extreme climate? Name two places of extreme climate in India.
The climate which has high annual range of temperature and great variation in the amount of rainfall over the year is known as extreme climate. It is also called continental or interior climate as it is found in the interior parts of the continents.
Jodhpur, Delhi, Kanpur.