Article 19 to 22 deal with the different aspects of this basic right Article 19 contains six freedoms guaranteed to the citizens.
These are: (a) the right to freedom of speech and expression, (b) right to assemble peacefully and without arms (c) right to form association and unions, (d) right to move freely throughout the territory of India, (e) right to reside and settle in any part of India, (f) right to practice any profession or carry on any occupation, trade or business.
Article 19 (i) guarantees that freedom to all citizens. However, it is not an absolute right. The state may make any law imposing reasonable restrictions on the exercise of this right. The freedom of expression is comprehensive enough to cover all forms of expression, including freedom of the press.
The right can be restricted only in the interest of public order and the restrictions must be reasonable. The right to form associations and unions is a charter for all working people to get together and organise themselves. This right is not available to every citizens in the same measure.
The right to free movement throughout the territory of India and settle in any part of it are guaranteed.
Article 20 affords protection against arbitrary and excessive punishment of any person who commits an offence.
Art-21 enacts that “no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedures established by law”. It does not recognise the right to life and personal liberty as an absolute right but limits the scope of the right itself.
Art. 22 guarantees three rights first, it guarantees the right of every person who is arrested to be informed of the cause of his arrest, secondly, his right to consult and to be defended by a lawyer of his choice, and thirdly, every person who is arrested and detained in custody shall be produced before the nearest magistrate within a period of twenty four hours and shall be kept in continued custody only with his authority. All these rights are without any qualifications and are therefore, in absolute terms.
(a) Any person who is for the time being an enemy alien; or
(b) Any person who is arrested or detained under any law providing for preventive detention.