In order to manufacture steel some manganese is necessarily to be mixed. Usually one tonne of steel needs 7 kg of manganese. Manganese is also needed as a raw material in electrical, chemical and glass industries.
Fertilizers, dyes and paints also require manganese in their manufacturings. The reason is that it is very hard, tough and non-magnetic. That is why it is used in the manufacturing of heavy machines, aeroplanes, armaments.
India’s manganese is considered to be of a good quality. The Indian manganese ore contains 54% of manganese while that of Ghana (Africa) 40-50%, Russia 45% and Brazil 30-50%.
(i) In Igneous Rocks.
The igneous rocks which contain manganese are Garnet, Khondalite, Gneiss, etc. Such rocks are found in Orissa und A.V.
(ii) In Metamorphic Rocks.
It is usually in metamorphic rocks of aqueous origin. Such rocks are found in Orissa, M.P., Maharashtra and Gujarat.
(iii) In Laterite Soil.
These soils are commonly found in Karnataka, M.P., Maharashtra and Orissa.
Reserves of Manganese.
India has an estimated reserves of about 161 million tonnes. Out of which 40 million tonnes are proved, 49 million tonnes probable and 78 million tonnes of possible category. Major reserves are in Orissa followed by Karnatka, M.P, Goa, Maharashtra.
Minor occurances of manganese ore are in A.P, Bihar, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Rajasthan and West Bengal.
Production of Manganese.
India produced 1-4 million tonnes of manganese in 1990, which is about 6% of the world. Because of its excellent quality the manganese has high demand in the international market. Main Manganese Areas
1. M.P. State .
The main belt of manganese ore is about 200 km long and 25 km wide. Ore is found in very old rocks of Pre-Cambrian times. The major mining districts are Chindwara and Balajjhat.
The main centres are Ramkola, Sausar, Sitapur, Goti, Machiwara etc.
The belt of manganese ore passes through Tirori,Jamrapani, etc. Other centres are Mirangpur, Sitapather, Ukwa, etc.
2. Maharashtra State .
The main manganese producing districts are Bhandara and Nag pur, besides other districts which are not very productive.
The main centres which mine manganese are Tumsar, Dongri etc. Roads and railway lines have been constructed for transportation purposes.
(b) Nagpur District.
To the north of Nagpur, the centres continue into M.P of which the Nagpur belt is an extension. The main centres are Ramtek, Tumsar, Sonpet and Bhandara.
Jharkhand, Bihar and Orissa.
The belt known for iron ore is also important for manganese production. The districts of Orissa are Keonjhar and Sundergarh. The belt of Orissa extends further south to Bolangir, Kalhanadi and Korapet.
In Jharkhand and Bihar states the districts are Singhbhum, Gaya, Hazaribag and Dhanbad. The rocks which provide manganese like garnet, quartz etc. are very old. They belong to precambrian period of geological history.
The main districts for manganese mining are Banswara, Udaipur, etc.
It produces about 15% of India’s manganese. The main districts are Srikakulam and Vishakhapatnam in the north-east and Cuddapah in the south. The manganese content is nearly 25-35%.
Karnataka and Gujarat have poor type of manganese. Goa has comparatively better quality of manganese.
Goa-Manganese is also available in the state. It is comparatively of better quality.