India has the following vegetation types:
Moist tropical & semi evergreen forests
These forests respond to high temperature, high relative humidity and heavy rainfall. The vegetation grows in areas of temperature ranging from 25° to 27°C, well distributed rainfall of over 300 cm and relative humidity of 75%. These are dense evergreen forests. The trees do not shed leaves.
The height of the trees is 30 to 45 m and even 60 m. The wood is hard and black in colour. There is luxuriant growth of bushes, trailers, climbers etc. Wherever the rainfall is less the forests are semi-evergreen.
These forests resemble equatorial forests (selvas). The main trees are Mahogany, Ebony, Rubber, Telsur, Gurjan, Tun, Chaplas, Bamboo, Pitfm, Rosewood, Sisoo, Boga-Poma, Poon, Bishopwood, etc.
The tree woods are tough and hard. It is difficult to saw these being very heavy. Such forests predominate in:
(i) The Western Slopes (Windward Slopes) of Western Ghats.
Hardwood forests are dominant on altitudes ranging from 500-1500 m. The timber is hard, durable and fine grained.
The important trees are telestar, rosewood, poon, ain, etc. Semi evergreen trees are found in the coastal plain. Kerala and Karnataka states have this type of vegetation.
(ii) North-East India.
In Assam, champa,gurjan and toon trees grow. Here some evergreen trees also grow where rainfall is around 250 cm as in upper Assam, northwest Bengal, Orissa (coastal as well as hills inside), the Lushai, Cachar, Garo, Khasi, Jaintia hills etc.
These trees shed their leaves. Common trees among them are ferns, epiphytes, bamboos, etc. It is strange that Cherrapunji area which gets world’s highest rainfall is almost treeless.
Only grass grows. It is due to the heavy rain that soil is washed away and the trees are unable to stand the torrential rains.