What do you understand by the term biological factors?


The biological factors are common to all the living organisms. Man is no exception to this. From infancy onwards, man is continuously subject to impact by the cultural pattern of the society in which he is born.

John Dewey has explained this concept in the following words:-

“Nothing in the universe, not even physical things exist apart from some form of association. There is nothing from the atom to man which is not involved in confect action, Planets exist and act in solar system, and these systems are galaxies.


Plants and animals exist and set in condition of much more intimate and complete interaction and interdependence. Human beings are generated only by union of individuals.

The human infant is as feeble in his powers as to be dependent upon the care and protection of others: his mind is nourished by contact with others and by inters communication. As soon as the individual graduates from family life, he finds himself taken into other associations, neighbourhood, and school, and village, professional or business associates”.

When we apply the two sociological principles to Education, we understand how sociological factors affect the aims, curriculum, métier, organisation and measurement of education. So we cannot build up any theory of education unless we make a detailed analysis of sociological principles, applied to education, i.e., Educational Sociology.

For purpose of socialisation, many social agencies are utilised. Home, school, church, state, press, radio, television, etc. are the social agencies which fulfill the social aim of education. The objective of these social agencies is to socialise the individual after relating education to social life.


Indian Education Commission has taken into account this aspect of education in view while observing. “The most important and urgent reform in education is to transform it to endeavour to relate it to life, needs and aspirations of the people and thereby make it a powerful instrument of social, economic and cultural transformation, necessary for realization of national goals”.

Gearing education to the needs of the Indian society, in general, the Commission has emphasised the following national objectives: (a) development of social values, (b) consolidation of democracy through education, (c) strengthening social and national integration through educational programmes, (d) development of moral and spiritual values (e) relating education to productivity and (f) modernisation of society.

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