Environment is a set of relationships between man and nature, when man and other higher animals began their life on this earth, there was no sign of environmental degradation. There was perfect balance in various natural processes.

Stone age man was fully dependent on this environment but the introduction of metal tool by man become the sign of extinction and exploitation by man of environment and man got a grip on the environment. Now the environment was at the mercy of man.

The biosphere is an open system where individual living things take into their bodies’ materials from the supporting systems; extract energy for life functions and discharge waste products. When the supporting systems get polluted, the biosphere becomes polluted. For this reason, the main problem represents one of maintaining the supporting system’s free materials harmful to the biosphere, especially man.

Nature has the inherent capacity to maintain the suitability of the supporting systems by various purification processes. For example, water is evaporated and condensed as rain. Oxygen from air absorbed by surface waters helps the decomposition of, organic materials. Inorganic materials are flushed into the sea. Bodies of dead plants and animals are decomposed by micro-organisms.


Nature’s tolerance capacities and generosity know no boundaries but man’s carelessness has crossed it faster, and degrading environment is the obvious consequence. Man has to maintain good relationship with the environment and it should not be exploited excessively.