Essay on Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is the unwanted growth of cells in the breast tissues. It is mainly classified in two categories: lobular carcinoma and ductal carcinoma. Lobular carcinoma is the one that starts in the lobules of the breast while ductal carcinoma occurs in the ducts that carry milk from breasts to nipples. Further, the cancer can be invasive (spreading to other tissues) or non-invasive (localised) in nature. Breast cancer generally occurs in the females but it is not completely obsolete in males. But females are 100 times more at a risk of developing breast cancer.
Most of the cases of carcinoma are idiopathic, i.e. no certain causative factor can be described that causes the breast cancer. However, there are various patterns and predisposing factors enlisted that describe the vulnerability and probability of developing cancers in females, they are:
The women are at a higher risk of developing the carcinoma with the advancing age. Genetics play a major role as a causative factor. Presence of certain genes and family history of the disease makes an individual susceptible to such developments. Over consumption of alcohol and smoking is also an additive factor. Estrogen hormone is known to be the underlying cause of all types of breast carcinoma. Females who have received hormonal replacement therapy in life are more prone to breast cancer.
Any kind of lump in the breast tissue should be taken seriously. Most, of the times, a small lump is the only presenting symptom of the disease. Pain is often obscured and appears in the later stages of the disease. Any kind of serous, purulent or bloody discharge from the nipples or disfigurement of the nipples should also be checked properly to rule out any serious growth in the breast tissues. The other associative symptoms like loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, fever etc can also be noticed.
The main diagnostic technique to detect breast carcinoma is mammogram. The other tests like Breast MRI, CT scan, Ultrasound, biopsy etc fall in line. Blood reports are also matched with the final results, confirming the diagnosis of the disease.
Breast cancer is curable and treated on the basis of stage and patient’s general health. However, with the advent of modern technologies and medical facilities the disease is well manageable. 8 out of 10 patients are successfully treated and lead normal life afterwards. The various procedures that are followed while treating the carcinoma are: chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical removal of the affected breast tissue. Again, the choice of treatment is different for different patients. The overall health of the patient and the stage and type of cancer are the factors that lead to the selection of treatment module most beneficial for the patient.
Breast cancer can be prevented by adopting a healthy lifestyle and leading an active life. Weight management along with reduced intake of alcohol and trans fats in the diet can help in prevention of the disease. Regular check-ups for those at higher risk are recommended after the age of 40 years. Breast cancer is one of the most researched and manageable form of carcinoma affecting human beings. With proper medications and treatment it is effectively manageable.