Transformation of Nationalism:
One could write volumes of papers criticizing Gandhiji’s actions but no one could afford to deny the fact that his life and activities occupies a major portion of the story of India’s struggle for Independence.
Indeed, it was under his leadership that the Indian national movement attained a new dimension.
It was Gandhiji who first realised that no freedom could be achieved unless masses were associated with the liberation movement.
What is more important is that he did not confine or limit the national movement within the narrow ambit of politics. He combined political freedom with his concept of Swaraj.
That is to say, country has to be liberated not merely from the foreign domination, its people must also be free from all sorts of repression and exploitation.
b & c. Rowlatt Act and it’s Motives:
Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919. The ‘Anarchical and Revolutionary crimes Act of 1919’ was popularly known as the Rowlatt Crimes Act.
As the said Act was framed on the basis of a report submitted by a committee headed by Justice Rowlatt, the Act came to be called the ‘Rowlatt Act’.
However, the real motive of the British in enacting the said Act was to deprive the Indians of their right to personal liberty as also the right to participate in political movements on the pretext of suppressing a handful of revolutionaries.
The main provisions of the Rowlatt Act were: (a) Arrest and deportation of any person on mere suspicion, (b) Trial of all political cases by tribunals to be set up for the purpose, (c) Possession of seditious pamphlets was declared to be a punishable offence.