During the First World War, the Chinese leaders not only joined the side of the Allies but also took steps to end the privileges of the foreign powers in China, specially Ger­many and Austria.

China stopped payment of their share of indemnity for the Boxer Uprising, renounced the treaties concluded with them, and requested their public properties and bank accounts. In 1917 when a Revolution broke out in Russia, China freed herself from Russia too.

When the war came to close, the Chinese expected that they would be able to secure freedom from all types of foreign limitation. Nourishing this hope China sent its delegates to the Peace Conference. This hope rested on the public assurance given by President Wilson for right of self-deter­mination for all people.

However, these hopes were shattered. The Allies merely agreed to impose an embargo on further shipments of arms and ammunition to China. As most of the powers were exhausted in the war they could not inflict fresh measures of exploitation on China. However, in order to appease Japan, the Allied Powers confirmed the Japanese in possession of Shantung, despite strong protest from China.