As regards the similarities between the two cultures/civilizations, many of the issues have already been discussed in the previous chapter under the heading “The Survival and Continuity of the Indus civilization”. In spite of numerous differences between these two, many of their religious features were absorbed in the later Hinduism.

Both of them were quite rich in material aspects. The Harappan mathematics must have helped ‘Vedic mathematics’, known to us from the Sulva Sutras; which form part of the Kalpa Sutras and deal with the construction of sacrificial altars used in Vedic ritual.

Both Harappan and Vedic civilizations made great contribution in the field of metallurgy. Similarly use of baked bricks, pottery, wheeled carts (which the Aryans developed as chariots), great regard for personal hygiene etc. were common to both of civilizations. Lastly, the Indus civilization and the Vedic culture constitute the two earliest and greatest landmark frontiers in the evolution of Indian culture and civilization.