1. Try to decrease the weight before making an increase. The decrease functions as an active rest period, resulting in a greater state of readiness to handle a higher training load.

2. Including rest periods in a training programme is especially beneficial when training with high intensity and/or high volume. Improvements in fitness (as measured by increased 5 strength or endurance) occur during the rest period, not during the-training itself.

3. Positive physiological adaptations to training result from correctly-timed alternations between stress and regeneration.

4. Negative adaptation occurs because of too great a stimulus and/or too little regeneration,


5. After a controlled training overload, there is a period when the body stimulus, if reintroduced to the body, will not cause the same disruption of homeostasis.

6. After it has adapted to the overload, the body is capable of doing more work for an equivalent homeostatic displacement. This is called over or super compensation.

7. The basic aim of training is to apply a series of stimuli that will displace the homeostasis of the body’s functional systems and provide a stimulus for adaptation and super compensation,

8. If the training stimulus is too small in either intensity or duration, littler no adaptation will take place.


9. If the stress is too severs, the adaptation will be delayed or even prevented.

Continuous Method

This method stresses the aerobic energy system by developing endurance. Central to this method of training is the performance of rhythmic exercise at a steady rate or low intensity which use the large j muscle groups of the body over a long period of time (between 30 mins and two hours). Good examples of such activities include jogging, swimming, cycling or aerobic dance. The intensity of such exercise should be at approximately 60% to 80% of HR max, as outlined in the Karnoven Principle so the body is not experiencing too much discomfort while exercising.

(a) Utilization-. This method is utilized in jogging, swimming, cycling, rowing, cross country skiing or aerobic dance.


(b) Benefits: A sportsman can be benefited by this method in following ways:

(c) This method can raise the level of HDL (“good”) cholesterol in the blood. (ii) An aerobic exercise regimen can also have positive psychological benefits, such as increased self-esteem, lessened anxiety, and even some relief of depression. (iii) Jogging and aerobics are very popular; therefore, by using this method individuals are made aware of the injury risk factors.

(iv) It helps in keeping elevated blood pressure normal at levels,

(v) It reduces the risk of heart disease, (vi) It can help in controlling weight gain.


(vii)By this method, great distances can be covered without the lactate build up. Distance runners, for examples may total up to 140 miles per week.

(viii)This method reduces the danger of injury, particularly to the muscles and joints, so any programme should be thoroughly scrutinized.

Interval Method

In the interval method, exercise is planned with the interval periods of rest. The training session is split up around a work to rest ratio (W.R). An example of a work to rest ratio would be a football match which has 2 x 45 minute work periods with a 15 minute rest interval. It is written as 45: 15 or 3: 1. There are different types of fitness such as muscular & C.V. endurance, speed, strength, flexibility & body composition.


One has to train specifically to achieve the adaptations that one wants. So the work period of the training session is calculated to a particular intensity and for a specific duration to achieve the adaptation that one wants, e.g., to improve strength one need to work at 90-100% of one’s max. One will only be able to do this for up to 30 seconds. The rest period has to be long enough to enable the body to recover sufficiently that it can perform the next work period at the desired level of intensity/duration.

Too little rest will prevent the training session from providing the desired effect. This is probably the most popular type of training used in sport for training the elite athlete.

(a) W: R-Ratio: W: R. ratio (Work-to-rest ratio) is ratio between work duration and recovery duration. The W: R ratio is the key to interval overload and adapting interval training to specific sports. A person capable of running 400 meters in 64 seconds may wish to be programmed for 400 meter intervals in a 20 minute training session. If the intensity of work required 80 per cent of maximum, the speed of each 400 meter run can be calculated by multiplying the best time (64 seconds) by 100/80. In this case it equals 80 seconds.

(b) Interval Training Prescription: The requirements of an interval training session can be expressed as the interval training prescription. For example, as swimmer may have the following session prescribed:


1. Activity during the rest interval.

2. During all recovery periods, the athlete should be encouraged to continue with light

3. Activity, as this promotes the faster removal of lactic acid then inactive recovery.

4. Distance of the work interval (duration)

5. Intensity of the work interval (speed)

6. The number of repetitions within a session

7. The number of sets within a session

8. Duration of the rest interval

9. Overload can be achieved by increasing the repetitions or sets.

(d) Benefits of Interval Method

1. It is very versatile and can be used in almost any sport.

2. Interval training can improve both aerobic and anaerobic capacities.

3. It enables the athlete to exercise at the specific intensity necessary to train the relevant energy system for that activity.

4. Interval training allows high-intensity work to be performed without the fatigue associated with a continuous session of equal intensity.

5. Interval training allows the three energy systems to be developed according to the length of the work interval and rest period.

Fartlek (Speed-play) Method

Fartlek is a form of endurance conditioning, where the aerobic energy system is stressed due to the continuous nature of the exercise. Fartlek sessions are usually performed for a minimum of 45 minutes, with the intensity of the session varying from low intensity walking to thigh intensity sprinting.

This type of training can be very individual and the athlete can determine the speed or intensity at which they wish to work. Since both aerobic and anaerobic systems are stressed through this method of training, a wealth of sports people can benefit. It is particularly suited to those activities that involve a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic work; e.g., field games such as rugby, hockey or soccer.

Traditionally Fartlek has taken place in the countryside where there is varied terrain, but this alternating pace method could occur anywhere and you could use your local environment to help you.

The difference between Fartlek and continuous method is that throughout the duration of the exercise, the speed or intensity of the activity is varied, so that both the aerobic and anaerobic system can be stressed.


1. It is good for improving tone & reducing body fat.

2. It is good for sports that need changes of pace such as football, netball, etc.

3. This type of training can be very individual.

4. The athlete can determine the speed or intensity they work

5. Both aerobic and anaerobic systems are worked through this method offers variety to what some regard.