1. The Direct Method

The principle underlying the Direct Method is to establish a direct bond between the English word, phrase or idiom and its meaning. The direct bond can be secured by (i) oral work; (ii) minimum use of the mother tongue; (iii) making the sentence and not the word as the unit of speech; teaching of descriptive grammar ; and, progressive teaching of new vocabulary.

2. The Structural Approach

The Structural Approach is based on the belief that in learning of a foreign language, mastery of structures is more important than the acquisition of vocabulary.


The characteristics of the structural approach are (i) word order (ii) presence of function words; (iii) use of a small number of inflections. The principles of structural approach are (i) forming language habits: (ii) importance of speech; (iii) importance of pupil’s activity. The teaching of grammatical patterns and structures involves: (i) Techniques of presentation-create situations, start with oral work and use substitution tables. (ii) Structure practice through pattern practice drills (Repetition drill: substitution drill; completion drill; conversion drill; chain drill etc.) and written practice. (iii) Application.