This order is expressed in most developed areas of science. Some very comprehensive theories are constructed which will provide the ground to accept different laws or generalisations.

While different generalisations obtained at lower stages of scientific inquiry are objectively confirmable either directly or indirectly by observation of facts, a comprehensive theory provides objective justification to the genralisations but unlike the former is not so observable.

In the process of systematizing the generalisaions or laws of science a comprehensive theory is constructed. Such a theory is comprehended at an abstract level by a genius. The non-instantial hypothesis, a term with which we are acquainted with, in the previous chapters, comes under this category.

This theory provides a systematic order to many laws of science. That means various uniformities or laws are systematized and are made a coherent system by help of this theory.


The theory has wider applicability and it possesses a higher degree of generality. It has great explanatory power as it systematizes and unifies scientific knowledge to a coherent system. Newton’s law of gravitation was sometimes understood to be a very comprehensive law.

Later on Einstlin’s theory of relativity introduced higher order as it showed greater explanatory power in systematizing many laws along with the law of gravitation.

A comprehensive theory not only systematizes our knowledge of science, it introduces a vertical order as it forms the basis for other laws or generalisations.

It justifies that the uniformities, generalisations or laws which are confirmable either through observation or experiment are not isolated from one another. Rather they are the consequences of the inclusive order expressed by the theory.


The theory is very comprehensive and more abstract than the laws established in science.

Thus scientific induction, generalisaions, discoveries and construction of theories come under these four orders. Even these orders are illustrated to represent the four stages of advancement in the different branches of science.