What are the Common Immune Complex Disorders?

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(1) Acute post streptococal glomerulonephritis:

If the simple and common problem sore throat developed by simple streptococcal infection is neglected, it can lead to kidney failure. When immune complexes formed by streptococcal bacteria and antibodies get deposited on the glomerular basal lamina of kidney, they induce Type III hyper sensitivity. Tissue damage through Type III hyper sensitivity reactions leads to chronic renal failure.

(2) Lepromatous Leprosy:

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Systemic invasion of Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy causing bacteria) produce a high titer of antigenic fragments. The immune complex formed with this antigen induces hundreds of sore, red skin lesions all over the body due to the deposition of immune complexes in capillary beds beneath the skin. Another complication of lepromatous leprosy is deposition of immune complexes in the joints and kidneys leading to arthritis and kidney malfunctions.

(3) Seconday Syphilis:

This sexually transmitted disease is caused by Treponema pallidum. If the disease is not treated in the initial stages with antibiotics, it progresses to secondary stage due to the formation of immune complexes developed in the body with the released antigens of Treponema pallidum, resulting in Type III hyper sensitivity related pathological conditions.

(4) Malaria:

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The Plasmodium parasites invade blood and hepatic cells and induce hyper sensitivity reactions resulting in pathogenesis. Raise of body temperature, with chills at regular intervals is due to hyper sensitivity reactions induced by the toxins released by the parasites. Rheumatoid arthritis, Goodpastures syndrome etc. (Refer Chapterl5 for further information) are examples for type III hyper sensitivity.

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