As regards Malik Ambar, he died at the ripe age of 80. He was a man of great energy, organising, power and military talent. It has been said of him that-“in warfare, in command, in sound judgement and administrative skill he had no rival or equal.”

The period of 6 years between the fall of Ahmadnagar and the defeat of Khusro, was wisely utilised by Malik Ambar in carrying out a series of reforms which made from the system of Todar Mai. He abolished the vicious system of revenue farming and revived and reorganised the village administration.

To begin with, he tried the system of revenue in kind, but finally adopted the method of cash payments based on the measurement of the land or about one-third. The revenue management was usually entrusted to be that cultivation thrived and the people flourished. The Exchequer found enough money in the officers to meet the high expenditure of the state due to military and diplomatic exigencies.

Malik Ambar was shrewd enough to realise that it would be impossible for Ahmadnagar with its limited resources to fight the Mughals successfully with their system of warfare. He was clearly the advantages of guerilla warfare which the Hindu Rajas of Mewar, Bundelkhand and the Frontier Tribes of Afghanistan had employed to their advantages against the Mughals.


As a matter of fact, in a hilly country, no other system could be so successful as the guerilla tactics. It was the only method for a state which had very limited resources. The Marathas were trained in guerilla warfare and they avoided as far as possible any pitched battle and continued to harass the enemy by cutting off supplies, by surprises, ambushing, skirmishing, terrorizing and alluring the enemy into impossible situations.

Malik Ambar increased the strength of the Maratha light horse and gave them an intensive training in guerilla warfare. Malik Ambar was also aware of the importance of navy for protecting the commercial and trade relations of his state with Persia. About 20 miles from Rajgarh, Malik Ambar chose an island popularly known as Jinjira for the naval outpost. He got his worships manned by Abyssinians claiming Arabian descent. They were known as Siddis.

They continued to hold their own even after the fall of the Mughal Empire and remained a headache to the Marathas and the Europeans for a long time. With these preparations, Malik Ambar turned his energies to recovering the territory of Admadnagar which had been lost to the Mughals. Fortunately for him, the Mughal Government of the Deccan was weakened by jealousies and dissensions of the Mughal Officers.

Malik Ambar kept down the turbulent spirit of the people and maintained his exalted position to the end of his life and closed his career in honour. History records no other instance of an Abyssinian slave reaching such eminence. He was a born leader of men. He conciliated all parties and maintained order. He has left a name for justice and vigor which has not been forgotten yet.