Pituitary gland is the master gland called hypophysis and is a gland of human endocrine system.
The term pituitary was given by Vesalius. This gland appears like a small pen nut structure situated at the base of the brain in the sella turcica of sphenoid bone of the cranium (brain box). It remains attached to the floor of the third ventricle by a stalk called pituitary stalk. Average weight of pituitary is 0.57 gm.
Pituitary is the most important gland hence concerned with the brain. It consists of three lobes; viz. an anterior lobe called adenohypophysis, a posterior lobe called neurohypophysis and an intermediate lobe called pores intermedia. Microscopically pituitary gland of man distinguished into six parts.
- Pars distalis or pars anterior
- Pars tuberalis
- Parsa intermedia
- Pars nervosa
- Median eminence or tuber cinereum
Histological view of pituitary gland shows that, anterior lobe is formed of by two types of cells viz. chromophobes and chromophils, Chromophils are two types i.e. acidophils and basophils according to their staining properties. Neurohypophysis is formed of pituicytes, non-medullatednerve fibers, mast cells, herring bodies, blood vessels etc. Where as the pars intermedia is formed of by polygonal basiophilic cells.