India Generally has a tropical monsoon climate because the Tropic of Cancer passes almost half way through India. However there are regional variations.
India has been divided into five climatic zones, which are as follows-
(i) Tropical Rain Forest-
This type of climate is found in the Western coastal plains and parts of Assam. This climate is responsible for high temperatures and its average temperature is 25’C and receive heavy rainfall about 200 cm. or above annually.
(ii) Humid Sub–tropical Climate with Dry Winters-
This type of climate is found in the middle Gangatic plain and North-Eastern Plateau areas. The average temperature does not fall beyond 18°C in the month of January. This area receives rainfall ranging from 100- 200 cm. annually.
(iii) Humid Tropical with, dry zones-
It covers the area of south eastern coastal plain, southern lava region. Punjab plain and travails. These areas receive rainfall from 50-100 cm, annually
(iv) Tropical desert–
This type of climate is found in the western Rajasthan. This area experiences the maximum tempest in the summer and the minimum temperature in the winter. This area receives rainfall below 40cm annually.
(v) Mountain climate-
Such type of climate is seen mountainous regions in the Himalayas ranges. It receives annual rainfall between 75-200 cm.
On the basis of monsoonal variations there are four seasons in India.
(i) The cold weather season-
It starts in early December, mean January temperature in the northern plain is about 10-15°q this season ended in the middle of the month of March.
(ii) The autumn–
It starts in the month of March and lasts up to middle of the month of April. In this month the old leaves of trees fall and new one are born.
(iii) The hot weather season–
It starts in the month of Apr and continues up to June.
(iv) The Rainy season-
The rainy season starts in the middle of the month June and lasts up to the middle of the month September
Monsoon brings rain in India. There are two branches of Monsoon South west Monsoon and North east Monsoon. India receives most of its total annual rainfall during south-west Monsoon.