This is a simple form of learning. When the individual faces a new situation, he makes a number of random movements. Out of those movements, unsuccessful ones are eliminated and the successful ones are retained.
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A 'trial' close is not a final close. It is a question or questions asked by the salesman to the prospect to get the much desired buying signals. A 'trial' close is an attempt to close at any point of sales talk to see whether the prospect is on the way to say 'yes' to his proposal.
The cat in Thorndike's puzzle box learns to connect a response with a stimulus, which is subsequently rewarded. The learning by trial-and-error is a matter of S-R connection. Kohler's chimpanzee learns to perceive the relationships between various aspects of the stimulus situation.
The experimental study of animal learning by E. L. Thorndike (1874-1949) in the United States and his theory on trial-and-error learning provided the impetus for Skinner's experiments on instrumental or operant conditioning.
A hungry animal is placed in a new situation. The hunger drive creates the need to obtain food, and pushes the organism into action. The organism exhibits a set of natural responses (clawing, biting, pushing and pulling) to seek adjustment with the new situation.
This method is also called trial and error method, or inspection method. In this method, coefficient before the formulae or symbols of the reactants and products are adjusted in such a way that the total number of atoms of each element only both the sides become equal.