Hospital infections (Hospital – acquired infections or nosocomial infections): These are infections developing in hospitalized patients which were not present at the time of their admission.
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The cause for rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever is a febrile disease. It is caused by group A beta hemolytic streptococci.
Hypertension in the commonest cardiovascular disease. WHO has defined hypertension as ‘ a systolic blood pressure of 160 mm Hg and above and or a diastolic blood pressure of 95 mm Hg or above”.
Cardiovascular diseases constitute the leading cause of death in most countries. They are responsible for about 50 per cent of total mortality.
WHO has defined blindness as ‘visual acuity of less than 3/60 (Smelled) or its equivalent’. In the absence of visual charts, ‘inability to count fingers in day light at a distance of 3 meters’ is an indication of blindness.
Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia (increase in blood glucose level). It leads to variety of complications like cardiovascular, renal, neurological and ocular problems.
Cancer is an abnormal and rapid growth of cells and tissues. It can invade distant tissues or organs. It can produce death if it grows beyond the stage of removal.
Leprosy (Hansen’s disease) is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leper. It affects mainly the peripheral nerves. It also affects the skin, muscles, eyes, bones, testes and internal organs.
Trachoma is a chronic infectious disease of the conjunctiva and cornea. It is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. Trachoma produces inflammation and scarring of the conjunctiva.
Filariasis is a communicable disease caused by three parasites: W. Bancroft, B. Malayi and B. Tamari. The symptoms of filariasis are lymphangitis lymphadenitis, elephantiasis of genitals, legs, arms etc. Also, pulmonary eosinophilia may be produced.