The living outer boundary of cytoplasm of a cell is the plasma membrane. Though a number of models have been proposed to explain the ultra-structure of plasma membrane, the fluid mosaic model proposed by Singer and Nicolson (1974) is widely accepted.
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Papaya mosaic disease is caused by papaya ring spot virus, which occurs in all aerial parts of host except the seeds. The disease appears as profuse mottling and puckering of young leaves and subsequently developing ones.